Journal of Plant Biotechnology : eISSN 2384-1397 / pISSN 1229-2818

Table. 3.

Table. 3.

Some important diseases, symptoms, causative agents, and their prevention methods incoffee plants

Type of organism Causative agent Disease name Symptoms Prevention method
Bacteria Pseudomonas syringae Bacterial blight Leaves become brown and necrotic with yellow halos; finally, leaves turn black and die. Symptoms occur on secondary or tertiary branches. De-sucker or cut off infected twigs and collect them in buckets for burning. Treat with copper oxychloride, Agrimicine, or Distreptine 20.

Bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) Small brown lesions on leaves, becoming black and angular. Apply copper to the plants just before the onset of the rainy season.

Bacteria Pseudomonas cichorii Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) Leaves associated with lesions. Spray copper oxychloride or Agrimicine.

Bacteria Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca Coffee leaf scorch (CLS) Leaf chlorosis and defoliation; finally, leaves fall down. Apply copper containing fungicides.

Fungal Cercospora coffeicola Cercospora leaf spot (brown eye spot, berry blotch) Brown spots on foliage enlarge and develop a gray-white center and a red-brown margin. Spray copper-related fungicides.

Fungal Colletotrichum kahawae Coffee berry disease (CBD) Dark sunken lesions on green berries; finally, berries drop from the plant. Treat with fungicides (e.g., chlorothalonil, fluazinam, dithianon, azoxystrobin).

Fungal Hemileia vastatrix Coffee leaf rust (CLR) Pale yellow spots appear on leaf surfaces and powdery orange-yellow lesions on the bottom of the leaves. Spray copper-containing fungicides.

Fungal Fusarium stilboides Wollenw. Seedling blight Cotyledons often fail to unfold, stem has necrotic lesions, and seedlings wilt. Remove the diseased seedlings from the field and burn.

Fungal Fusarium xylarioides and Gibberella xylarioides Coffee wilt disease (CWD) Leaves turn yellow, dry wither, and fall. Finally, within a few weeks, the entire tree withers and dies. Chemical treatments do not protect the trees against this disease. Apply antiseptic paste on the injured parts to avoid the penetration of pathogens.

Fungal Colletotrichum sp. Blister spot Leaves with emaravirus lesions Treat with a systemic fungicide (e.g., Benlate).

Fungal Capnodium coffeae Pat. Sooty blotch mold or sooty fungus Whitish mealy bugs and black papery films of fungal growth on leaves and berries.

Fungal Corticium koleroga Coffee thread blight (CTB) Mats and light-colored thread growths on the bottom of the leaves and twigs. Spray cupric compounds, triazole fungicides (e.g., Agrozim 50 WP, Bavistin 50 WP, Bayleton 25 EC, Foltaf 80 WP, Plantvax 20 EC, Tilt 25 EC, and Topsin-M 70 WP).

Fungal Pellicularia koleroga Koleroga Fine whitish threads on the branches and twigs finally, leaves wither and dry Spray Bordeaux mixture and Bavistin 50 WP.

Fungal Marasmius equicrinis Horse hair blight Leaves and twigs covered with long thin black threads. The diseased leaves wither and die. Spray cupric compounds or fungicides. Carefully remove the infected branches and part sand burn.

Fungal Corticium salmonicolor Pink disease Salmon-pink crusty coating on the surface of the bark, which pales later on. The diseased parts wither and die. Spray cupric fungicide. Remove diseased branches and burn.

Fungal Phoma costarricensis Burn or blight Leaves show necrosed tissues with the development of sickle shape. Treat with cupric fungicides and organic fungicides (e.g., Rovral).

Fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Anthracnose Leaf yellowing, leaves drop at mid-branch. Spots or lesions on ripening berries. Maintain healthy coffee plants. Clean the area. Remove waste branches from the field and burn.

Fungal Armillaria mellea Armillaria root rot Yellowing and wilting of the foliage, followed by death. Remove any dead stumps and their roots. Cleanthe area. Remove waste branches from the field and burn.

Fungal Fusarium stilboides Bark disease Fungus grows beneath the bark layer that becomes flaxy in texture. Damage to stem and berries. Spray with 0.4%fungicide (Captan or Captafol)

Fungal Rosellinia spp. Black or Rosellinia root rot Fungal growth on the root surface reduces the root system and causes wood rot. Finally, root cortex with lesions Spray with fungicides.

Fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Colletotrichum kahawae Brown blight Brown sunken lesions on fully-developed cherries, which turn black and hard (can be confused with Cercospora) Maintain healthy coffee plants. Remove waste branches from the field and burn.

Fungal Koleroga noxia Black rot disease Dark brown or black decaying leaves, mycelial threads on twigs and petioles Avoid close planting. Removeand burn dried and dead branches. Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture and Carbendazim 50 WP on the surface of leaves and berries.

Fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Stalk rot of berries and leaves Brownblack necrotic lesions on the nodes and internodes, greenwood branches toward the apex Spray Bordeaux mixture and Carbendazim 50WP to foliage, branches, and developing berries.

Fungal Hemileia coffeicola Grey leaf rust Clear spots and unevenly spread blotches on the leaf surface Spray cuprous oxide (Red Copper) with 50% copper content.

Fungal Omphalia flavida American leaf spot Round spots on leaf limbs Spray lead arsenate and copper-based fungicide (e.g., Bordeaux mixture).

Fungal Sclerotium rolfsii Soft rot disease Water-soaked lesions on leaves and berries, leading to softening and decaying of infected tissues Spray Bordeaux mixture and Carbendazim 75 WP on both surfaces of leaves and berries.

Fungal Cercospora coffeicola Berry blotch Dark brown, irregular, slightly sunken, necrotic spots on the surface of green berries Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture.

Fungal Cercospora coffeicola Red blister disease Small red spots on both green and ripening berries Spray fungicide.

Nematode Pratylenchus spp. Root knot Stunning leaf becomes yellow. Crop rotation is the best treatment.

Animalia Xylosandrus compactus Shoot hole borer Small holes on the undersurface of young succulent branches between nodes, finally, branches wither Remove and destroy all the unwanted and infested suckers during summer. Simultaneously, spray systemic fungicide (e.g., Propiconazole and Endosulfan 35 EC).

Animalia Xylotrechus quadripes White stem borer Presence Ridges on the stem, yellowing of leaves. Grubs bore into the branches and cause wilting and occasional drying of plants. Prune infected plants or uproot them. If the borer has burrowed up to the root, then burn the infected plants and spray Chlorpyrifos 20EC. Stem may be swabbed with Carbaryl 50WP.

Animalia Xylosandrus compactus Black twig borer Yellowing of foliage and wilting, often at end of twigs and branches Destroy the infected plant areas and burn.

Animalia Hypothenemus hampei Coffee berry borer (CBB) When the insect feeding starts from the small hole of the fruit, debris will come out, and brown or grey debris deposits on top of the hole and drop the fruit. Remove dropped berries and debris fromthe field to reduce the new source of infection. Spray insecticides.

Algae Cephaleuros virescens Algal (red) leaf spot Furry growth and green-orange spots on leaves and cracks in the barks of the young stem Spray cupric fungicides and organic fungicides.
J Plant Biotechnol 2021;48:207-22
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