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Effects of mechanical Injury, cotyledon elimination and nutrition for the germination of apple seeds (Malus pulmila var. domestica)
J Plant Biotechnol 2019;46:318-322
Published online December 31, 2019
© 2019 The Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.

Pil Son Choi · Young Jin Lee · Young Beob Yu · Myung Suk Choi

Department of Oriental Pharmaceutical Development, Nambu University, Gwangju 62271, Korea
Department of Emergency Medical Rescue, Nambu University, Gwangju 62271, Korea
Division of Environmental Forest Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, The Republic of Korea
Correspondence to: e-mail:
Received October 11, 2019; Revised October 23, 2019; Accepted October 23, 2019.
cc This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
When dehulled apple seeds (Malus pilmila var. domestica) were induced to germinate, the rate of germination, which was increased by piercing both the radicle and cotyledon, was related to the site of injury. Also, the germination rates of an embryo with ¾ cotyledon (¾ CE), embryo with ½ cotyledon (½ CE), embryo with ¼ cotyledon (¼ CE), and embryo without cotyledon (NCE) gradually decreased compared to an embryo with a normal cotyledon, but it significantly recovered on the agar media containing MS solution and/or 80 mg/L gibberellin (GA3) as nutrition. The results show that the germination of the embryo was inhibited by the partial removal of cotyledon and also demonstrated that the rate of germination could be significantly increased by adding GA3 (80 mg/L) and/or MS medium.
Keywords : Apple seed, Cotyledon injury, Cotyledon elimination, Germination, Gibberellin (GA3), MS solution

December 2019, 46 (4)
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