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Efficient virus elimination for apple dwarfing rootstock M.9 and M.26 via thermotherapy, ribavirin and apical meristem culture
J Plant Biotechnol 2019;46:228-235
Published online September 30, 2019
© 2019 The Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.

Young Hee Kwon · Joung Kwan Lee · Hee Kyu Kim· Kyung Ok Kim· Jae Seong Park · Yoon Sun Huh · Eui Kwang Park · Yeo Joong Yoon

Chungcheongbuk-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Cheongju 28130, Republic of Korea
Uniplantech, 498, Samyang-ro, Daeso-myeon, Eumseong-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, 27659, Republic of Korea
Correspondence to: e-mail:
Received July 8, 2019; Revised August 30, 2019; Accepted September 4, 2019.
cc This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Apple (Malus pumila) is one of the most economically important fruits in Korea. but virus infection has decreased the sustainable production of apples and caused serious problems such as yield loss and poor fruit quality. Virus or viroid infection including apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple mosaic virus (ApMV) and apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) have been also reported in Korea. In many cases, as apple gets infected with virus and viroid with no specific symptoms, the damage and symptoms caused by the viruses are not detected. In our research, viruses in the rootstock were eliminated for a virus-free apple dwarfing rootstock of M.9 and M.26. The virus elimination methods were apical meristem culture, thermotherapy (37°C, 6 weeks) and chemotherapy(Ribavirin®). The detection of apple viruses was accomplished by Enzyme-linked Immuno- Sorbent Assay (ELlSA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RT- PCR method was 10 ~ 30% more sensitive than the ELISA method. The efficiency of virus elimination was enhanced in apical meristem culture method. The acquisition rate of virus-free apple dwarfing rootstocks was 30 ~ 40% higher in apical meristem culture. After the meristem culturing of M.9, the infection ratio of ACLSV, ASPV and ASGV was 45%, 60% and 50%, respectively. In the apple dwarfing rootstock of M.26, the infection ratio of ACLSV, ASPV and ASGV was 40%, 55% and 55%, respectively. Based on this study, the best method for the production of virus-free apple dwarfing rootstocks was the apical meristem culture.
Keywords : Apple rootstocks, Virus elimination, Apical meristem, RT- PCR, ELISA

September 2019, 46 (3)
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  • Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
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