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Functional characterization of gibberellin signaling-related genes in Panax ginseng
J Plant Biotechnol 2021;48:148-155
Published online September 30, 2021
© 2021 The Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.

Jinsoo Kim?Woo-Ri Shin ?Yang-Hoon Kim?Donghwan Shim ?Hojin Ryu

Department of Biology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Republic of Korea
Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Republic of Korea
Department of Biological Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea
Correspondence to: e-mail:
Received August 14, 2021; Revised September 17, 2021; Accepted September 17, 2021.
cc This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Gibberellins (GAs) are essential phytohormones for plant growth that influence developmental processes and crop yields. Recent functional genomic analyses of model plants have yielded good characterizations of the canonical GA signaling pathways and related genes. Although Panax ginseng has long been considered to have economic and medicinal importance, functional genomic studies of the GA signaling pathways in this crucial perennial herb plant have been rarely conducted. Here, we identified and performed functional analysis of the GA signaling-related genes, including PgGID1s, PgSLY1s, and PgRGAs. We confirmed that the physiological role of GA signaling components in P. ginseng was evolutionarily conserved. In addition, the important functional domains and amino acid residues for protein interactions among active GA, GID1, SCFSLY1, and RGA were also functionally conserved. Prediction and comparison of crystallographic structural similarities between PgGID1s and AtGID1a supported their function as GA receptors. Moreover, the subcellular localization and GA dependent promotion of DELLA degradation in P. ginseng was similar to the canonical GA signaling pathways in other plants. Finally, we found that overexpression of PgRGA2 and PgSLY1-1 was sufficient to complement the GA-related phenotypes of atgid1a/c double- and rga quintuple-mutants, respectively. This critical information for these GA signaling genes has the potential to facilitate future genetic engineering and breeding of P. ginseng for increased crop yield and production of useful substances.
Keywords : Panax ginseng, GA, Hormone, Signal transduction, Genome engineering

September 2021, 48 (3)
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