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  • Research Article 2024-07-23

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    Production of human epidermal growth factor in cell suspension cultures of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban using balloon-type bubble bioreactors

    Ga-Eun Baek ・ Han-Sol Lee ・ Xinlei Bai ・ Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy ・ Eun-Jeong Son ・ Hyo Hyun Seo ・ Sang Hyum Moh ・ So-Young Park

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:206-218

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.020.206

    Abstract

    Abstract : Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) has several medicinal and pharmacological applications. The aim of this study was to determine whether callus and cell suspension cultures of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica could produce hEGF. The callus of C. asiatica was transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying the hEGF and hEGF-KDEL (KDEL sequence targeting peptides to endoplasmic reticulum) genes on plasmids pKRE1 and pKRE2, respectively, under the control of 35S promoters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using gene-specific primers to select transformed callus lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting were performed to confirm that EGF was expressed in the transformed lines. Cell suspension cultures were established in balloon-type bubble bioreactors using transformed EK2 cells. Efficiently transformed cell biomass was produced in bioreactor cultivation. The hEGF protein isolated from transformed cells induced the in vitro cell proliferation of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Therefore, plant expression systems, particularly plant cell cultures, can produce recombinant hEGF.

  • Research Article 2024-06-26

    0 102 32

    Morphological and histological characteristics of somatic embryo development of carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Young Jin Lee ・Pil Son Choi

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:202-205

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.019.202

    Abstract

    Abstract : Embryogenic callus formation was induced from the cultures of hypocotyl explants of Daucus carota L. on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Liquid cultures of the embryogenic cells or clumps were maintained on a shaker at 120 strokes/min, and then the embryogenic cells or clumps were sub-cultured in hormone-free MS medium for two weeks to develop somatic embryos. Somatic embryos obtained from the liquid cultures were classified as somatic embryos (two cotyledons) and abnormal multi-cotyledons (three or four cotyledons). The differentiation of procambial tissue in the somatic embryos initiated with a circular shape in the hypocotyl region and then connected to the cotyledon nodes; the tissue differentiated into the cotyledon region to form two cotyledons with two procambial strands, three cotyledons with three procambial strands, and four cotyledons with four procambial strands. These results suggest that the differentiation of procambium in somatic embryos is closely related to the number of cotyledons formed.

  • Review 2024-06-26

    0 275 43

    Agricultural sustainability through smart farming systems: A comparative analysis between the Republic of Korea and Republic of Uganda

    Kenneth Happy ・ Roggers Gang ・ Yeongjun Ban ・ Sungyu Yang ・ Endang Rahmat ・ Denis Okello ・ Richard Komakech ・ Okello Cyrus ・ Kalule Okello David ・ Youngmin Kang

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:167-201

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.018.167

    Abstract

    Abstract : Smart farming involves the integration of information and communication technologies into machinery and sensors for use in agricultural systems. It is expected to potentially enhance the sustainability of agriculture and global food security. The need for smart farming arises from the increasing adverse environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts on food systems. The potential impact of smart farming solutions on different countries is less known. Therefore, we comprehensively analyzed the role of smart farming solutions in sustaining agricultural production in the context of comparing a developed (Republic of Korea) and an emergent (Republic of Uganda) country. We scrutinized the agricultural assets, natural resources, approaches, technologies, policy interventions, achievements, challenges encountered, and reasons of smart farm pursuit for each country. Information presented in the paper indicated that both countries have similar objectives in the pursuit for smart farming: response to climate change and sustaining food security. However, the Republic of Korea employs a holistic approach of revolutionizing agriculture via smart farms. In contrast, distinct smart farming interventions implemented by government institutions, competing private sector, and non-governmental organizations are shaping the development of a smart farm concept in the Republic of Uganda. In conclusion, application of smart farming solutions appears to be promising in enhancing the stability of the whole food system in both countries.

  • Research Article 2024-05-29

    0 135 25

    Development of PCR-based markers for Solanum verrucosum via comparison of the complete chloroplast genome sequence of S. verrucosum with those of other Solanum species

    Ju-Ryeon Jo ・Tae-Ho Park

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:158-166

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.017.158

    Abstract

    Abstract : Solanum verrucosum is a species of wild potato originating from Mexico and is widely used for potato breeding owing to its late blight resistance. However, S. verrucosum is a diploid with an endosperm balanced number (EBN) of two; these properties differ from those of cultivated potatoes (S tuberosum). Therefore, it cannot be directly crossed with cultivated tetraploid potatoes for breeding purposes. Somatic fusion can overcome this problem; and it is important to select suitable somatic hybrids using molecular markers after somatic fusion. Therefore, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequence of S. verrucosum using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, and compared it with sequences of eight other Solanum species to identify S. verrucosum-specific markers. The length of the complete chloroplast genome of S. verrucosum is 155,485 bp and its structure is almost identical to those of other Solanum species. Phylogenetic analysis of S. verrucosum compared with 16 other Solanaceae family members revealed that S. verrucosum was most closely grouped with S. demissum, S. hougasii, S. Stoloniferum and S. hjertingii. Sequence alignment of the complete chloroplast sequences of nine Solanum species including S. verrucosum identified three InDels and five SNPs specific to S. verrucosum. Based on these InDels and SNPs, four S. verrucosum-specific PCR-based markers were developed. The makers can be used to distinguish S. verrucosum from other Solanum species. Our findings will facilitate the selection of fusion products and advance potato breeding using S. verrucosum.

  • Research Article 2024-05-23

    0 116 20

    Development of a green soybean line with a green cotyledon and a tetra null genotype for P34, lectin, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, and lipoxygenase proteins

    Sarath Ly ・Kwon Moon Jeong ・Byeong Eon Park・Jong Il Chung

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:152-157

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.016.152

    Abstract

    Abstract : Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties with a green seed coat and cotyledon have long been cultivated for their high levels of lutein, which is considered beneficial for eye health. However, mature soybean seeds also contain major antinutritional and allergenic factors, including P34, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), lectin, and lipoxygenase proteins. The objective of this research was to develop a new soybean line with a green cotyledon and a green seed coat, and without P34, KTI, lectin, and lipoxygenase proteins. A breeding population was developed using two cultivars and three germplasms. Seventy-four F2 seeds with a green cotyledon and a green seed coat were obtained. Twenty-four F2 seeds with a tetra null genotype (p34p34-titi-lele-lox1lox1lox2lox2lox3lox3) were selected and planted in a greenhouse. One F2 plant that exhibited suitable agronomic traits was selected. The SDS-PAGE and western blot methods were used to determine the absence (tetra null genotype) of P34, KTI, lectin, and lipoxygenase proteins in random F3 seeds from the F2 plant selected. The color of the cotyledon and seed coat for the new selection line was green. The stem height was 72 cm and the 100-seed weight was 21.5 g. The new line obtained in this research could be bred into a soybean variety with a green cotyledon, a green seed coat, and fewer allergenic and antinutritional properties.

  • Research Article 2024-05-29

    0 111 22

    Complete chloroplast genome of Solanum jamesii and development of PCR-based markers to discriminate between S. jamesii and other Solanum species

    Ju-Ryeon Jo ・Tae-Ho Park

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:143-151

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.015.143

    Abstract

    Abstract : Solanum jamesii is a wild Solanum species with a native range from northwestern Mexico to southwestern United States. It is a resource for potato breeding due to its resistance to late blight. However, S. jamesii is diploid and has an endosperm balanced number (EBN) of one, which hampers the sexual hybridization between S. jamesii and cultivated potatoes. To overcome this problem, somatic fusion can be performed. After fusion, molecular markers are necessary to select fusion products efficiently. In this study, therefore, the chloroplast genome of S. jamesii was sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and was compared with those of eight other Solanaceae species to develop specific markers for S. jamesii. The total length of the chloroplast genome sequence of S. jamesii is 155,576 bp. The structural organization of the chloroplast genome is almost identical to those of other Solanum species. Phylogenetic analysis with 17 other Solanaceae species showed that S. jamesii is most closely related to S. cardiophyllum. Detailed analysis of the chloroplast genome sequence of nine Solanum species identified two S. jamesii-specific InDels and 11 S. jamesii-specific SNPs. Based on these results, six S. jamesii-specific PCR-based markers were developed. The results of this study can be used to identify S. jamesii from other Solanum species and will contribute to the development of new potato varieties using S. jamesii.

  • Review 2024-05-23

    0 103 33

    Phosphate depletion: research status and challenges in agriculture

    Na-Hyun Shin ・Lae-Hyeon Cho

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:129-142

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.014.129

    Abstract

    Abstract : Phosphate, an important macronutrient required for plant growth, is involved in various processes, including energy metabolism, and is also a key component of nucleic acids and phospholipids. Phosphorus fertilizers are not reusable and phosphate rock, which is the only phosphorus fertilizer resource, is limited and becoming depleted. To address this issue, phosphate transporters that can absorb phosphate from underground soil and transport it to plant aerial parts have been identified in Arabidopsis and major crops, such as rice, wheat, barley, maize, and soybean. Phosphate in the soil is primarily absorbed through diffusion via phosphate gradients between the soil and plant and transported to the shoot via the xylem. The plant uses the acquired phosphate and it accumulates in the seeds, thereby influencing plant growth for the next generation. Symbiotic phosphate acquisition via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the genes or quantitative trait loci involved in increased phosphate uptake with enhanced yield have been reported. However, besides climate, soil phosphate uptake is affected by various environmental factors such as soil water content, pH, texture, temperature, and element composition. Thus, developing crops with desired traits for high phosphate uptake and phosphate-use efficiency and cultivating them in appropriate environments is essential. This review provides comprehensive information on transporters and genes or quantitative trait loci that are known to enhance phosphate acquisition and transportation. Moreover, we discuss measures to address the problem of phosphorus depletion.

  • Research Article 2024-05-29

    0 73 15

    Completion of chloroplast genome sequence and development of PCR-based markers for Solanum pinnatisectum

    Seoyeon Son ・Tae-Ho Park

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:121-128

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.013.121

    Abstract

    Abstract : Solanum pinnatisectum, originating from Mexico, is a wild potato species valued for its resistance to various insects and pathogens, including the Colorado potato beetle, potato tuber moth, Phytophthora infestans, and Erwinia carotovorum. Despite its advantageous traits, S. pinnatisectum is diploid with an endosperm balanced number (EBN) of one, presenting sexual reproduction barriers with cultivated potatoes. Cell fusion methods can be employed to circumvent these barriers and integrate beneficial traits from S. pinnatisectum into cultivated potatoes. In this study, therefore, the chloroplast genome sequence of S. pinnatisectum was completed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and compared with those of ten other Solanum species to develop specific PCR markers for S. pinnatisectum. The complete chloroplast genome of S. pinnatisectum is 155,597 bp in length and exhibits structural organization similar to those of other Solanum species. Sequence alignment of the complete chloroplast genomes sequences of eleven Solanum species, including S. pinnatisectum, identified 216 SNPs and 26 InDels unique to S. pinnatisectum. Based on these InDels and SNPs, six PCR-based markers were developed to identify the plastid genotype of S. pinnatisectum. The results of this study will be instrumental in distinguishing S. pinnatisectum from other Solanum species, selecting suitable genotypes for potato breeding through somatic hybridization, and accelerating the breeding program using S. pinnatisectum.

  • Review 2024-05-20

    0 140 32

    Genetic elements controlling starch biosynthesis and secondary growth in root and tuber crops

    Haruna Anate Abdulsalami ・Yookyung Lim ・Hyunwoo Cho

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:111-120

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.012.111

    Abstract

    Abstract : Root and tuber crops (RTCs) are characterized by having underground organs as their main storage tissues, which they use for nutrient absorption. Simultaneous root thickening via secondary growth and nutrient accumulation are the two main indicators of yield and quality in RTCs. Given the crucial role of RTCs, specifically their high content of starch contributing to meeting the energy requirements of humans worldwide, being an important component of animal feed, having various industrial applications, and being used for biofuel production, researchers have made tremendous efforts toward studying hormonal signal transduction, transcription factor activity, and the expression of genes that regulate secondary growth and starch biosynthesis. These studies have focused primarily on a few RTCs, such as potatoes and sweet potatoes, neglecting important members that exhibit different developmental fates. A holistic and thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secondary growth and starch biosynthesis in these crops is essential to address the ongoing climate change, rapidly increasing food demand, and various industrial requirements for starch-based materials. This paper reviews recent findings regarding hormone signaling, the role of transcription factors in secondary growth and starch biosynthesis, as well as gene expression during these two processes. The review emphasizes the necessity for further exploring these topics and proposes genes for which the expression requires elucidation. Thus, this article paves the way toward conducting focused research and obtaining data that can be adopted by RTC breeders and used as biotechnological tools to enhance the yield and qualities of starch in RTCs.

  • Research Article 2024-04-22

    0 420 69

    In Silico identification of dengue NS5 phytochemical inhibitors as potential antiviral drug compounds via molecular docking

    Earl Adriane Cano ・Jovito San Luis III ・Julia Cassandra Perez ・Aleezah Priela ・Eiby Grace Ramos ・ Mhizzy Reyes ・Luis Antonio Rico ・LJ Sabado

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:100-110

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.011.100

    Abstract

    Abstract : Dengue fever is a viral disease caused by the dengue flavivirus, transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The endeavor to combat dengue has led many researchers to develop antiviral drugs. Several medicinal plants, containing diverse phytochemicals, exhibit potential for inhibiting pathogenic proteins and are employed in ongoing research and therapeutic advancement. This has piqued researchers’ interest in identifying potential plant-derived molecule inhibitors 』of the dengue virus Non-Structural Protein 5 (NS5) and analyzing their subsequent interactions. This study employed candidate selection and molecular docking using an in silico approach. We used the Protein Data Bank database and performed National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) blastp analysis to gather and compare the best protein structures of the two NS5 serotypes. In addition, we identified ligand molecules previously reported to exhibit potential inhibitory effects against NS5 by retrieving their 3D structures from NCBI PubChem. Moreover, we utilized PyRx and PyMOL to perform molecular docking. The findings revealed a conspicuous prevalence of interactions between the MTase domain in NS5 and phytochemical compounds, notably Kaempferol and 6-Shogaol. Based on the evidence presented in this study, we propose that investigating the NS5 protein in flavivirus is necessary for dengue fever prevention, as these proteins play a vital role in the replication of the virus. Our findings provide valuable insights beneficial for advancing research into antiviral medication. We suggest further investigation into other medicinal plants that may inhibit dengue and the additional scrutiny of Kaempferol and 6-Shogaol, the compounds that yielded significant results in this study

  • Research Article 2024-04-16

    0 215 44

    Evaluating the insecticidal potential of ethanol extracts from Melia azedarach Linn. against Bactrocera cucurbitae - a pest inflicting damage on Momordica charantia Linn.

    Tran Thi Phuong Nhung ・Le Pham Tan Quoc

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:089-099

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.010.089

    Abstract

    Abstract : This study explores the insecticidal efficacy of ethanol extracts - obtained from the fruits and seeds of Melia azedarach (MAFS) - against Bactrocera cucurbitae. We assessed the effectiveness of the MAFS extracts at concentrations ranging from 1 to 625 ppm using both laboratory and greenhouse models. Sofri protein 10 DD (1.2 liters/ha) served as the standard insecticide, while water functioned as the negative control. Key parameters evaluated include pupation period, germination time, quantities of pupae and adult individuals, and the severity of damage to bitter melon fruits. In the laboratory model, MAFS significantly prolonged the pupation period (p < 0.05), reduced pupal numbers (p < 0.05), and affected the pupation percentage of B. cucurbitae (p < 0.05). In addition, the germination time (p < 0.05) and proportion of adult B. cucurbitae emergence (p < 0.05) were also significantly impacted. In the greenhouse experiment, MAFS significantly reduced the quantity of B. cucurbitae eggs on bitter melon plants (p < 0.05), resulting in a notable decrease in both larval (p < 0.05) and pupal quantities (p < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of MAFS on larval (p < 0.05) and pupal quantities (p < 0.05), as well as survival from the larval to adult stage, were equivalent to the sofri protein (p < 0.05). MAFS effectively mitigated the severity of damage to bitter melon fruits caused by B. cucurbitae (p < 0.05). Moreover, MAFS exhibits significant effects throughout the various developmental stages of B. cucurbitae. These findings support the potential of MAFS ethanol extracts as an efficient and eco-friendly solution for pest infestation management.

  • Review 2024-04-09

    0 371 81

    Industrial interests and requirements for improvement of pearl millet, a gluten-free and climate-smart underutilized cereal

    Leila Riahi ・Mériam Ben-Romdhane ・Ahmed S. Masmoudi

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:077-088

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.009.077

    Abstract

    Abstract : Pearl millet is a small-seeded staple crop in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. It is the crop of choice in the hottest and driest climates where other cereals do not grow well and is considered a future climate-smart cereal. This underutilized cereal provides nutritional and food security to millions of people. It is also used as animal feed, fuel, and fodder as well as in brewing. The gluten-free grains of this cereal are rich sources of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, especially iron and zinc, and phenolics with health-promoting properties. Pearl millet also has industrial uses in the production of bioenergy, biodegradable products, bio-coagulants, and construction materials, and in tissue engineering. Pearl millet hybrids have gained considerable popularity among Indian farmers, resulting in a significant increase in production yields. However, pearl millet production in Africa is primarily dependent on traditional landraces with limited acceptance of improved open-pollinated varieties and hybrids. Consequently, no significant increase in pearl millet production has been achieved over the past few decades. Despite its inherent resilience against poor climates, this staple crop faces a complex array of abiotic and biotic stresses in its production areas, which is exacerbated by ongoing climate change. Furthermore, certain anti-nutritional traits impede its overall nutritional value and effective utilization. Hence, improving pearl millet is a continuous and significant challenge for plant breeders and biotechnologists.

  • Research Article 2024-04-08

    0 232 63

    Genome-wide identification of oleosin family and expression analysis in response to abiotic stresses in balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus)

    Eunhui Kim・Tae Kyung Hyun

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:071-076

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.008.071

    Abstract

    Abstract : Oleosins (OLEs) are structural proteins commonly found within oil bodies (OBs), playing a significant role in regulating the number, size, and stability of OBs. Therefore, this study aims to comprehensively analyze the OLE family in balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus) - a significant medicinal plant. Through genome-wide exploration and bioinformatics analyses, we identified and characterized five putative OLE proteins from P. grandiflorus (PlgOLEs). This study provides a comprehensive overview of this gene family in balloon flowers, including phylogenic analysis, conserved motifs, isoelectric points, and hydrophobicity. The study revealed the presence of central hydrophobic regions with a proline knot motif, a characteristic feature shared by OLE proteins in various plant species. Additionally, tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that PlgOLEs were predominantly expressed in seeds, indicating their crucial role in seed OB stability. Furthermore, expression profiling under abiotic stresses demonstrated that PlgOLEs are stress-inducible genes, suggesting their diverse physiological functions in stress responses. These findings shed light on the functional diversity of OLEs in balloon flowers and establish a basis for further research, including genetic modification studies, to elucidate their physiological roles.

  • Research Article 2024-03-28

    0 283 68

    Effects of flooding conditions and phytohormones on coleoptile elongation in Indica rice varieties

    Khac Nhu Nghi ・Ngoc Ai Trinh

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:063-070

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.007.063

    Abstract

    Abstract : The unpredictable scenarios of current climate change pose great challenges for global food security. Climate change triggers submergence, a natural disaster that affects cereal production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Among cereals, rice is a unique species in its ability to germinate and develop a long coleoptile under water. Several previous studies indicated that the capacity of japonica rice is better than indica rice cultivars. Herein, we assessed the ability of coleoptile elongation and the role of exogenous auxin (IAA) in promoting rice coleoptile length under dark, flooded conditions using 20 indica rice varieties collected from the Mekong Delta. We germinated 20 rice seeds per variety under water (with and without adding auxin at different concentrations) for several days and measured the coleoptile length at two different timepoints of submergence. We found that the ability to develop a long coleoptile under water was not related to the rice subspecies. The average coleoptile length at day 8 and the growth curve from the beginning to day 8 of the submergence experiment of our rice cultivars were the same. We also found that 10 μM of IAA concentration expressed a significant effect on the capacity of coleoptile elongation in both long and short coleoptile-harboring indica rice subspecies. Our results suggested that OM108, OM5451, and ĐT8 are promising rice cultivars for rice production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

  • Research Article 2024-03-07

    1 445 179

    Best practices for initiation of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) cultures

    Fatma H. Kiruwa ・Emanuel Epathra Mlinga ・Agatha Amnaay Aloyce ・Mpoki Mathew Shimwela

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:055-062

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.006.055

    Abstract

    Abstract : Banana is a staple food and income crop worldwide. Here, we identified the best practices for the initiation of banana (Musa spp.) cultures. The cultivars studied included East African highland bananas (Mshare/Mchare and Nshakara) and plantains (Mzuzu), which are highly demanded by farmers. The following factors were assessed: sterilization techniques for rainy and dry seasons, explant size, effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration on regeneration of cultures, effect of ascorbic acid on culture browning, and culturing conditions. We found that treatment with ethanol alone (70%) or in combination with sodium hypochlorite (1%) yielded a relatively higher proportion (≥ 96%) of aseptic culture establishment in both rainy and dry seasons. Explant size affected the survival and regeneration of cultures where small explants (< 10 mm) like meristem dome showed relatively slower re-growth and high mortality in contrast to large explants (≥ 10 mm). Moreover, culturing in BAP-supplemented Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) significantly enhanced the greening/shoot regeneration percentage at 14 d. However, there was no significant increase in number of green shoots/culture regeneration at BAP concentrations of 5 mg/l, 6 mg/l, and 8 mg/l for Nshakara and 3 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 6 mg/l for Mzuzu. Browning decreased by 18% when explants were pre-treated with 100 mg/l ascorbic acid for 10 min. Further, growth conditions such as light were a relatively greater determinant for regeneration of initiated banana cultures. Therefore, our findings suggest the use of appropriate sterilization techniques, explant size, growth regulators, and conditions to ensure sufficient production of planting materials.

  • Research Article 2024-03-05

    1 368 60

    Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil from Dak Lak province, Vietnam

    Pham My Hao ・Le Pham Tan Quoc

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:050-054

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.005.050

    Abstract

    Abstract : Essential oils (EOs) are predominantly found in odorous plants, particularly in Mediterranean and tropical countries worldwide. These oils hold significant value as crucial components in traditional medicine systems. Moreover, they are widely used in food technology, medicine, and cosmetics. EOs of different origins may have unique properties. Therefore, this study aimed to design and analyze the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the EO extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L., sourced from Dak Lak province (Vietnam). The chemical composition of the EO was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed 23 compounds, with eugenol accounting for the highest proportion (76.01%) and its EO exhibiting potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus, as assessed via the agar disc diffusion method. Therefore, the EO extracted from O. gratissimum can be considered a natural antibacterial and aromatic agent suitable for application in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  • Research Article 2024-02-19

    0 444 87

    Transcriptome analysis of a tropical medicinal plant, Pistacia weinmannifolia

    Mi Kyung Choi ・Bimpe Suliyat Azeez ・Sang Woo Lee ・Wan Yi Li ・Sangho Choi ・Ik-Young Choi ・Ki-Young Choi ・Jong-Kuk Na

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:033-049

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.004.033

    Abstract

    Abstract : Pistacia weinmannifolia has long been used as an herbal medicine for treating various illnesses. The genomic information of P. weinmannifolia will help elucidate the chemical constituents that exert medicinal effects; however, genomic studies have rarely been performed. Therefore, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of P. weinmannifolia using the Illumina RNA sequencing system. We obtained a total of 18 million high-quality paired-end reads with 2,230 Mbp. De novo assembly of high-quality reads generated a total of 18,956 non-redundant contigs with an average length of 901 bp, of which 18,296 contigs (96.5%) were annotated. The total length of all unigenes was 17,080,830 bp, and the GC content and N50 were 43.2% and 1,137 bp, respectively. Annotation using The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assigned a total of 5,095 unigenes (26.9%), of which 3,166 were mapped to 410 different KEGG metabolic pathways. A comparison of unigenes between P. weinmannifolia and Pistacia chinensis showed that 8,825 unigenes were highly similar to each other. Simple sequence repeats were mined, and valuable data for further comparative and functional genomic studies were obtained to uncover the mechanisms underlying the medicinal properties of P. weinmannifolia as an important medicinal plant. Several genes of P.weinmannifolia involved in the biosynthesis of eugenol and isoeugenol were also identified in this study.

  • Research Article 2024-01-25

    1 611 130

    Effects of plant hormones on the characteristics and the genetic stability of calli induced from the ex vitro tissues of Celosia argentea var cristata

    Nhat-Anh Tran-Nguyen・My Y Huynh・Hong Hanh Doan・Phuong Ngo Diem Quach・Thanh-Hao Nguyen・ Vi An Ly

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:024-032

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.003.024

    Abstract

    Abstract : Celosia argentea var cristata, commonly known as the cockscomb plant, is a popular ornamental species in Vietnam. Its propagation primarily relies on seeds, enabling widespread cultivation but leading to a notable absence of micropropagation research in the country. This practice poses a potential threat to preserving unique traits susceptible to loss through segregation. To address this gap, this study focused on the impact of plant hormones on callus formation in various aerial tissues - leaves, stems, and newly emerging inflorescences - gathered from plants grown on soil. The calli displayed distinct morphological characteristics under the influence of different combinations of 6-Benzyladenine (BAP), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-Dicholorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Furthermore, we investigated the genetic stability of C. argentea var cristata calli using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The calli persistently cultured on medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 2 mg/L NAA maintained their genetics stability, as assessed through four RAPD markers: OPA-13, OPA-15, OPA-18 (G), and OPD-2.

  • Research Article 2024-01-23

    1 393 115

    Assessment of the antioxidant and nematicidal activities of an aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robins against Radopholus similis infestation in Cavendish banana plants: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Tran Thi Phuong Nhung・Le Pham Tan Quoc

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:011-023

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.002.011

    Abstract

    Abstract : Here, we investigated the antioxidant and nematicidal activities of the aqueous leaf and stem extract of Chromolaena odorata (L.) (AECO) against Radopholus similis, a nematode pest of banana plants. In vitro antioxidant analysis involved testing AECO at concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging assays. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed using doses of 780, 1,560, 3,120, 6,250, and 12,500 mg DW/L AECO. We assessed the egg hatching inhibition and juvenile survival rate of R. similis, content of antioxidant compounds in banana roots, dry weight of the aerial parts and roots, and the nematode density in the soil. In vitro antioxidant assays revealed substantial DPPH-scavenging (59.67-92.13%) and ABTS radical inhibition (37.26% at 300 μg/mL) activities. In vitro experiments using 12,500 mg DW/L AECO exhibited significant inhibition (p < 0.05) of R. similis egg hatching (26.98%, 55.25%, and 82.92% at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively) and reduced juvenile survival (p < 0.05). In vivo experiments demonstrated a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in malondialdehyde concentration and an increase (p < 0.05) in antioxidant production (glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) in banana roots after AECO treatment. Plant biomass showed significant differences (p < 0.05), with the highest values (15.38 ± 0.13 g the aerial part dry weight and 29.32 ± 0.15 g the root dry weight) recorded in the AECO12500 treatment. Notably, R. similis density was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the soil after AECO treatment, with maximum inhibition obtained using 12,500 mg/kg. These findings emphasize the potential of AECO for pest management and its relevance to the cultivation of Cavendish bananas.

  • Research Article 2024-01-12

    1 434 105

    Overexpression of ZjWRKY10, a Zoysia japonica WRKY transcription factor gene, accelerates leaf senescence and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Yueyue Yuan・Ji-Hi Son・Mi-Young Park・Hyeon-Jin Sun・Hyo-Yeon Lee・Hong-Gyu Kang

    J Plant Biotechnol (2024) 51:001-010

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2024.51.001.001

    Abstract

    Abstract : The WRKY transcription factors play an important role in plants’ stress response, leaf senescence, growth, and development. In this study, we cloned ZjWRKY10 from the leaf of Korean lawngrass (Zoysia japonica), a warm-season turf; the deduced protein sequence showed high homology with the TaWRKY10 protein of wheat. The ZjWRKY10 and TaWRKY10 genes belong to group IIc of the WRKY transcription factor family, which regulates tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. The study’s results showed that ZjWRKY10 was slightly upregulated by cold, sodium chloride, and polyethylene glycol 6000 treatments; however, it was strongly activated by a dark treatment. When ZjWRKY10 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana after dark treatment, it resulted in earlier leaf senescence compared with wild-type plants. In addition, the transgenic plants overexpressing ZjWRKY10 showed early-flowering phenotypes when exposed to long-day conditions compared with the wild-type plants. When comparing the transgenic with the wild-type plants, the increased expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, vital in triggering flowering, supported the earlier flowering observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These results support that ZjWRKY10 may be involved in the regulation of leaf senescence and flowering.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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eISSN 2384-1397
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