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  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 85 329

    High-frequency regeneration by stem disc culture in selected clones of Populus euramericana

    Hae-Yeon Cui, Hyo-Shin Lee, Chang-Young Oh, Shim-Hee Han, Kyung-Ju Lee, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Kyu-Seok Kang, So-Young Park

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 236-241

    Abstract

    Abstract : An efficient regeneration protocol for stem disc culture of Populus euramericana, which is important species for bioenergy resource in agroforestry, was established. The number of explants that were obtained and the number of explants that regenerated varied with the genotypes. However, in all the genotypes, stem disc culture produced more regenerated shoots than did in axillary bud culture. A comparison of the effects of cytokinin type and concentration on shoot regeneration in different explants (i.e., petiole, leaf, and root segments of P. euramericana) revealed that a concentration of 0.002 mg l-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) used on petiole segments resulted in the greatest shoot regeneration (95.83%). The hormonal requirements for the greatest shoot regeneration in the three explant types varied. Different concentrations of AgNO3 and CoCl2 were added separately to the medium to stop the yellowing and subsequent necrosis of the regenerated shoots. Lower concentrations (3 and 5 mg l-1) of these compounds improved shoot regeneration and elongation, compared with the control. The in vitro-regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting medium and subsequently acclimatized. The highly efficient regeneration system of P. euramericana reported here can be used for mass propagation of this recalcitrant for regeneration, economically important tree species.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 115 363

    Change of amino acids contents of Gastrodia elata Blume with harvest times and seed tuber

    Hyun-Tae Kim, Eung-Jun Park

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 229-235

    Abstract

    Abstract : Gastrodia elata Blume, an achlorophyllous orchid plant, has been used in traditional medicine and harvests in spring and fall. Here we investigated the quantitative changes of amino acids in G. elata by harvest times and seed tubers. In the results, we found that there was not big difference in contents of total amino acids but the distribution of amino acids differed depending on harvest times. 19% of total amino acids were asparagin and valine, an essential amino acid, occupied 10% within total amino acids in the tubers harvested in October. Among amino acids in the tubers harvested in April, serine occupied 23% and arginine, an essential amino acid, occupied 10% within total amino acids in tuber. Interestingly, the use of sexually propagated seed tubers produced high concentration of total amino acids compared to vegetatively propagated seed tubers. As for sexually propagated seed tubers, essential amino acids contents similar to the tubes harvested in October and nonessential amino acids contents similar to the tubers harvested in April. In this study, we found that amino acids contents in G. elata tubers altered depending on various cultivation practices. Therefore if these results can be applied to food industry, the value of G. elata as a natural food resource will be enhanced to a great extent.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 181 390
    Abstract

    Abstract : To establish an efficient proliferation and regeneration of PLBs (protocorm-like bodies) of Phalaenopsis plants, a variety of propagation medium types, various concentraions of sucrose as well as liquid and solid type were tested in this study. Further, activated charcoal, citric acid and ascorbic acid were compared whether these agents are suppose to reduce the browning in culture process using PLBs of Phalanopsis plants. With regard to the proper propagation medium, VW medium showed 1.3 ~ 2 times highr than those of other medium in an index of increasing for fresh weight and 50% higher than those of other medium in the frequency of shoot regeneration. However, regarding liquid and solid types of culture, there were no significant differences in the proliferation of PLBs and regeneration of shoots from PLBs. In the experiment for a variety of sucrose concentrations (0 ~ 50 g/l), 10 g of sucrose showed 30 ~ 50% higher than other concentrations in increasing index and 10 ~ 50% higher in the regeneration of shoots from PLBs. Regarding the reduction of browning in tissue culture via PLBs of Phalaenopsis plants, 1 g of activated charcoal showed only 1.5% browning of PLBs cultured. Whereas, other treatments including citric acid and ascorbic acid showed 6 ~ 16% of browning of PLBs. Therefore, activated charcoal was selected as an efficient anti-browning agents for the culture of PLBs in Phalaenopsis plants. Using above-described results can be contibuted to the establishment of mass propagation system using PLBs of Phalaenopsis plants in the future.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 130 378
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study was carried out to develop an efficient transformation protocol via particle bombardment with PLBs (protocorm-like bodies) in Phalaenopsis. To achieve this aim, osmoticum treatment and an increasing shooting chances in particle bombardment process were applied for this study. In addition, pCAMBIA3301: ORE7 vector which contains a herbicide-resistance bar gene as a selectable marker and ORE7 gene as a gene of interests were employed. With regard to the increasing chances of shooting in particle bombardment, double shooting was the best results with 1.5 ~ 2.5 times higher than those of a single or triple shooting treatment in the productioon of PPT (D-L-phosphinothricin)- resistant PLBs. However, regeneration rate of shoots in double shooting was not high as a single shooting. Further, double shooting showed 35 ~ 40% higher than that of a single shooting in the frequency of browning. Regarding effects of different osmotic treatments, combination of 0.2 M sorbitol with 0.2 M mannitol showed the best results in transformation efficiency, regeneration of transformants and reduction of browning. Putative transgenic Phalaenopsis plants were analyzed by PCR analysis and confirmed the presence of bar and ORE 7 gene. Also, real-time PCR was conducted by using 21 transgenic plants and showed only 4 plants had one copy of transgene; whereas, the other 17 plants had more than 2 copies of transgene. Transgenic phalaenopsis plants produced in this study were transferred to pots and flowered normally without morphological variations in flower and leaf.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 110 331

    Effect of Kelpak? on the promotion of in vitro rooting in transgenic rose plantlets

    Su Young Lee, O Hyeon Kwon, Hye Jin Lee, Won Hee Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 212-215

    Abstract : In order to promote in vitro rooting in SOD2- transgenic rose plantlets, which were not well rooted in a rooting medium (MS medium with NAA 0.03 mg·L-1), we dipped the plantlets into liquid Kelpak? before placing them in the rooting medium. After 4 weeks, Kelpak? significantly promoted in vitro rooting in the plantlets. Therefore, Kelpak? can be used successfully to aid in the in vitro rooting of rose plantlets with roots that are not well-generated.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 111 371

    Comparison of the nutritional compositions of oxidative stress-tolerant transgenic rice and conventional rice

    Hee-Jong Woo, Kong-Sik Shin, Myung-Ho Lim, Soon Ki Park

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 206-211

    Abstract

    Abstract : Nutritional assessment of transgenic crops to improve safety evaluations is important for food production. An oxidative stress-tolerant rice was generated by stable insertion of the TC gene?a tocopherol cyclase isolated from tobacco?into the genome of a common variety of japonica colored rice. The nutritional composition of the brown rice grains from the transgenic TC line was compared with that of the parental rice cultivar Heugnambyeo and two different varieties of non-transgenic rice. The results indicate that the analyzed nutritional compositions of the brown grains from the transgenic TC line were within the range of values reported for other commercial lines, and measurements of nutritional compositions were equivalent to those of the non-transgenic rice.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 100 715

    Inhibitory effects of extracts from Smilacina japonica on lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in RAW264.7 macrophages

    Jung-Hwan Nam, Jong-Taek Seo, Yul-Ho Kim, Ki-Deog Kim, Dong-Lim Yoo, Jong-Nam Lee, Su-Young Hong, Su-Jeong Kim, Hwang-Bae Sohn, Hyun-Sam Kim, Bo-Sung Kim, Kyung-Tea Lee, Hee-Jhun Park

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 201-205

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2014

    0 118 388

    Isolation and characterization of a monodehydroascorbate reductase gene in poplar (Populus alba × P. glandulosa)

    Seo-Kyung Yoon, Eung-Jun Park, Eun-Kyung Bae, Young-Im Choi, Joon-Hyeok Kim, Hyoshin Lee

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 194-200

    Abstract

    Abstract : Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) is an important enzyme that plays a role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by maintaining reduced pool of ascorbate through recycling the oxidized form of ascorbate. In this study, we isolated a PagMDHAR1 gene from Populus alba × P. glandulosa, and investigated its expression characteristics. The PagMDHAR1 cDNA encodes a putative 434 amino acids containing FAD- and NAD(P)H-binding domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that a single nuclear gene encodes this enzyme. Northern hybridization analysis revealed that PagMDHAR1 is highly expressed in both suspension cells and flower tissues, while its expression levels were enhanced by drought, salt, cold, wounding and ABA. Therefore, PagMDHAR1 might be expressed in response to abiotic stress through the ABA-mediated signaling pathway in this poplar species, suggesting that the PagMDHAR1 plays an important role in the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress.

  • ReviewDecember 31, 2014

    0 763 739
    Abstract

    Abstract : In plants, a shoot apex has a small region known as the shoot apical meristem (SAM) having a group of dividing (initiating) cells. The SAM gives rise to all the groundabove structures of plants throughout their lifetime, and thus it plays important role in growth and development of plants. This review describes theories to explain the SAM organization and function developed over the last 250 years. Since in 1759 German botanist C. F. Wolff has described firstly the SAM, in 1858 Swiss botanist C. N?geli proposed the apical cell theory from the observation of a large single apical cell in the SAM of seedless vascular plants: however, this view was recognized to be unsuitable to seed plants. In 1868, German botanist J. Hanstein suggested the histogen theory: this concept subdividing the SAM into dermatogen, periblem, and plerome was unable to generally apply to seed plants. In 1924, German botanist A. Schmidt proposed the tunica-corpus theory from the examination of angiosperm SAM in which two parts show different planes of cell division: this theory was proved to be not suitable to gymnosperm SAM, not have stable surface tunica layer. In 1938, American botanist A. Foster described zones in gymnosperm SAM based on the cytohistologic differentiation and thus called it a cytohistological zonation theory. With works by E. Gifford, in 1954, this zonation pattern was demonstrated to be also applicable to angiosperm SAM. As another theory, in 1952 French botanist R. Buvat proposed the m?rist?me d’attente (waiting meristem) theory: however, this concept was confuted because of its negation of function during vegetative growth phase to central initial cells. Rescent studies with Arabidopsis thaliana have found that formation and maintenance of the SAM are under the control of selected genes: SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) gene forms the SAM, and WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA (CLV) genes function in maintaining the SAM; signaling between WUS and CLV genes act through a negative feedback loop.

  • ReviewDecember 31, 2014

    0 106 628

    Metabolic engineering for biofortification of lipophilic antioxidants in plants

    Eun-Ha Kim, Kyeong-Ryeol Lee, Jong-Bum Kim, Kyung Hee Roh, Han Chul Kang, Hyun Uk Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2014; 41(4): 169-179

    Abstract

    Abstract : Metabolic engineering for biofortification of lipophilic antioxidantaIntracellular antioxidants include low molecular weight scavengers of oxidizing species, and enzymes which degrade superoxide and hydroperoxides. Such antioxidants systems prevent oxidative damage to cellular component by scavenging free radicals and activated oxygen species. Hydrophobic scavengers are found in cell membrane where they interrupt chain reactions of lipid peroxidation. The three major lipophilic antioxidant classes for human health are carotenoids, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10. The biofortification of staple crops with these lipid soluble antioxidants is an attractive strategy to increase the nutritional quality of human food. Here, we have summarized the biosynthetic pathways of three lipid soluble antioxidants in plants and current status of genetic engineered plants for elevated levels of each lipophilic antioxidant.s in plants

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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Plant Biotechnology

pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
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