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  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    3 267 756

    New protocol for the indirect regeneration of the Lilium ledebourii Bioss by using bulb explants

    Sina Ghanbari, Barat Ali Fakheri, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, and Nafiseh Mahdinezhad

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(2): 146-153

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.2.146

    Abstract

    Abstract : Lilium ledebourii Bioss is a wild species of Lilium, which grows naturally in some provinces of Iran. Previous studies on Lilium tissue culture have been linked to direct regeneration and a few studies have been conducted on indirect regeneration, which has been studied under bright conditions. In this study, for the first time in the world, all the stages of indirect regeneration (callus induction, shoot and root induction) have been studied under dark conditions. Callus formation and the regeneration levels of L. Ledebourii Bioss were examined for three replicates in an MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium with different hormonal compositions and by using a factorial experiment in the framework of a completely random plan. For callus initiation, 2,4-D and kinetin hormones were used in five and four levels, respectively, as auxin and cytokinin. Results showed that the highest percentage of the callus was found in 3 µM of 2,4-D and 0.5 µM of kinetin. In terms of callus wet weight, the highest amount was found in 3 µM of 2,4-D and 0.5 µM of kinetin. In addition, in terms of diameter, the highest amount was found in 3 µM of 2,4-D, and 0.5 µM of kinetin. In summary, the 2,4-D hormone had a major impact on the percentage of regeneration increase so that the best response was related to the composition of 3 µM of 2,4-D, and 0.1 µM of kinetin. This study contended that auxin and cytokinin can induce long shoots and roots through cell elongation in dark condition.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    10 329 1101
    Abstract

    Abstract : Inducing genetic and morphological variation through conventional method is very difficult. Therefore, mutation induction through in vitro technology brings numerous advantages over the conventional breeding. Thus, the individual shoots (1~2 cm) were irradiated with gamma rays (10~70 Gy). The result revealed that the explants treated with higher doses (40, 50, 60, and 70 Gy) showed deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. The highest survival rate among γ treated explants recorded was 71% in 10 Gy treatments while the lowest survivality was 15% in 70 Gy. Lethal dose 50% (LD50) dose was found to be 33 Gy. In the in vitro condition, rooting reponse showed that increase in gamma irradiation dose resulted in the inhibition of root growth. Meanwhile, non-treated explants had the best rooting ability with the maximum number of root per explant (20) within a short period of time (6 days), with the highest root length of (15.1 cm). The longer period in rooting (12 days) and lowest number of root per explant (8) with shortest root length (10.1 cm) were recorded at 30 Gy treatment. The highest shoot length (13.6 cm) was observed at control treatment and the shortest shoot length (10.4 cm) was observed at 30 Gy. In the nursery, lowest leaf number (5) was observed at 30 Gy compared with other treatments. The highest chlorophyll content (49.8) was recorded at 10 Gy treated seedling. Irradiated explants with 10 Gy found to be superior over the control treatment and had positive effects in main growth parameters such as chlorophyll content.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 206 616
    Abstract

    Abstract : We examined the effect of carbon sources on the regeneration and ex vitro acclimatization of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth. Plantlets were regenerated on the 1/2MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (3~10%) of sucrose and glucose. The sucrose concentrations of 3% and 5% that were supplied enhanced shoot multiplication and rooting but hampered high concentration growth (including the length of the shoot and root). During ex vitro acclimatization, the tuberization of the root, the root length, the shoot length and the survival rate of Lycopus lucidus plantlets grown using 3% and 5% sucrose were found to be better than the other carbon sources and concentrations. Thus a sucrose concentration of 3% and 5% in the 1/2MS medium appeared to be better for both in vitro growth and ex vitro acclimatization of Lycopus lucidus.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    0 247 755

    Microtuberization and Acclimatization in the Dioscorea cayenensis Thunb. by the Carbon Source

    Na Nyum Lee, Ji Ah Kim, Yong Wook Kim, and Tae Dong Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(2): 125-130

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.2.125

    Abstract

    Abstract : In this experiment, we investigated the effects of various carbon sources and concentrations on the microtuber induction and acclimatization of the yam (Dioscorea cayenensis). First, the effects of the in vitro carbon sources and concentrations on the microtuber induction were examined. The highest efficiency of the microtuber induction was obtained in the 7% sucrose treatment, whereas the glucose treatment shows no effect on the microtuber formation. Secondly, the effects of the survival rate and the microtuber formation rate after the acclimatization were examined. The diameter (6.1 mm) and fresh weight (0.5g) of the tuberous root are the highest in the pretreatment of the 7% sucrose. Although the survival rate of the pretreatment of the low concentration sucrose (3% sucrose) is 100 %, the growth and development were inhibited. These results suggest the 7% sucrose treatment is appropriate for the yam microtuber formation and acclimatization. In addition, this protocol could be used for the propagation of virus- or disease-free clones and the multiplication of elite yam cultivars.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    6 938 2564

    Analysis of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and skin-whitening effect of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

    Young-Min Goo, Young Sook Kil, Seung Mi Sin, Dong Yeol Lee, Won Min Jeong, Keunhee Ko, Ki jeung Yang, Yun-Hee Kim, and Shin-Woo Lee

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(2): 117-124

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.2.117

    Abstract

    Abstract : The imports of Centella asiatica L. Urban are increasing year-by-year due to the fact that its extract is a raw material used for skin wounds and in cosmetics. However, studies on the cultivation and identification of native C. asiatica species in Korea have been extremely rare. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate the physiological and functional activity of Korean native C. asiatica plant cultivated in Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. As a result, the highest antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities were examined with methanol extract while skin-whitening and wrinkle improvement were examined with water extract. Seven bacterium and one fungus were treated with 50% methanol extracts of C. asiatica and most of the bacterium showed similar or low levels of antibacterial activity compared to the control group of Omiza (Schisandra chinensis) extract, except for Streptococcuspyogenes, which showed higher antimicrobial activity than that of Omiza extract. However, neither C. asiatica and Omiza extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the fungus, C. albicans. The results of anti-inflammatory effect analyses with Raw 264.7 cells confirmed that the treatment of methanol extract reduced the level of NO by 50% or more compared to the control group. In addition, the water extract showed the highest reduction of melanin content of up to 20% more than the control group when examined with B16F10 cell line, indicating a significant skin-whitening effect. Furthermore, we were able to show the significant skin wrinkle improvement caused by C. asiatica extract with NHDF cell as an indicator, but strong cytotoxicity was also observed, suggesting that further studies are necessary.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    1 177 997
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study was conducted to develop a simple, rapid, and reliable method for in vitro propagation of disease-free and true-to-type clones from sucker explants of thornless blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. × R. parvifolius L.). To induce multiple shoots, the sucker explants were sterilized in 1% NaOCl solution, and then were aseptically cultured on the full and 1/2 MS solid medium supplemented with BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/L). After six weeks of culture, the highest frequency (85.4%) of shoot formation from sucker explants was obtained on the full-strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L BAP. Node explants obtained from multiple shoots were cultured on the various media of full- or half-strength of AD, B5, MS, SH, QL, WPM media, respectively. After 30 days of culture, plant growth was good on the half-AD, half-QL medium. After 90 days of culture, plant growth was good on the full MS and full SH medium. The survival rate of the plantlets after transfer to plastic pots containing soil mixture (sand: soil: vermiculite was 1:1:1, vol.) in the greenhouse was 98%. The results indicate that a multiple-shoot procedure can be applied for an efficient mass propagation of Rubus fruticosus L. × R. parvifolius L.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    2 238 1001
    Abstract

    Abstract : Thistle is a perennial plant that is widely used for medicinal purposes. Information on the genetic diversity of thistle populations are great important for their conservation and germ plasmic utilization. Although thistle is an important medicinal plant species registered in South Korea, no molecular markers are currently available to distinguish them from other similar species from different countries. In this study, we developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of genomic sequences to identify distinct Korean-specific thistle species via an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) curve analyses. We performed molecular authentication of four different kinds of thistle species from different regions using DNA sequences in the ITS intergenic region. We also developed a quantitative PCR assay using species-specific ITS primers, which allowed us to estimate the ratio of Korean-specific thistle species using varying ratios of mixed genomic DNA templates from the two species. The SNP markers developed in this study are useful for rapidly identifying specific thistle species from different countries.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    11 467 1506

    Sugar content and expression of sugar metabolism-related gene in strawberry fruits from various cultivars

    Jeongyeo Lee, Hyun-Bi Kim, Young-Hee Noh, Sung Ran Min, Haeng-Soon Lee, Jaeeun Jung, Kun-Hyang Park, Dae-Soo Kim, Myeong Hyeon Nam, Tae Il Kim, Sun-Ju Kim, and HyeRan Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(2): 90-101

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.2.090

    Abstract

    Abstract : Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a globally- cultivated and popular fruit crop, prized for its flavor and nutritional value. Sweetness, a key determinant of fruit quality, depends on the sugar composition and concentration. We selected eight strawberry cultivars based on the fruit soluble solids content to represent high and low sugar content groups. The average soluble solid content was 13.6 °Brix (Okmae, Geumsil, Aram, and Maehyang) and 2.9 °Brix (Missionary, Camino Real, Portola, and Gilgyung53), for the high and low sugar content groups, respectively. Sucrose was the main sugar in the cultivars with high sugar content, whereas fructose was the main component in the low sugar content cultivars. Fruit starch concentration ranged from 3.247±0.056 to 3.850±0.055 g/100g, with a 12% higher concentration in the high sugar content cultivars. Additionally, we identified 41 sugar metabolism-related genes in Fragaria × ananassa and analyzed the relationship between their transcripts and the sugar accumulation in fruit. FaGPT1, FaTMT1, FaHXK1, FaPHS1, FaINVA-3, and FacxINV2-1 were highly expressed in the high sugar content cultivars, while FapGlcT, FaTMT2-1, FaPHS2-1, FaSUSY1-1, and FaSUSY1-2 were highly expressed in the low sugar content cultivars. In general, a greater number of genes encoding sugar transporters or involved in sugar synthesis were highly expressed in the high sugar content cultivars. Contrarily, genes involved in sugar degradation were preferentially transcribed in the low sugar content cultivars. Although gene expression was not perfectly proportional to sugar content or concentration, our analysis of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in strawberries provides a framework for further studies and for the subsequent engineering of sugar metabolism to enhance fruit quality.

  • Research ArticleJune 30, 2018

    5 190 1168
    Abstract

    Abstract : The interplay of plant hormones is one of the essential mechanisms for plant growth and development. A recent study reported that Brassinosteroids (BR) and ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) interact antagonistically in early seedling developments through the BR-mediated epigenetic repression of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). However, the other physiological roles of the BR-mediated regulation of ABI3 and ABA responses beyond early seedling developments remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that the activation of BR signaling by high temperatures promotes flowering time through the suppression of ABI3 expressions. Elevated ambient temperature induced early flowering in wild type Col-0 plants, but not in BR-defective bri1-116 mutant plants. Conversely, a hyper BR biosynthetic dwf4-D mutant displayed more sensitive thermomorphic long shoot elongation and early flowering. Both expression patterns and physiological responses supported the biological roles of ABI3 in the regulation of floral transition and reproduction under high temperature conditions. Finally, we confirmed that the lowered expressions of the transcript and protein levels of ABI3 brought on by elevated temperature were correlated with warmth-induced early flowering phenotypes. In conclusion, our data suggest that the BR- and warmth- mediated regulation of ABI3 are important in thermomorphic reproductive phase transitions in plants.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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Plant Biotechnology

pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
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