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  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    4 593 803
    Abstract

    Abstract : We analyzed the growth and quality characteristics of barley sprouts grown under artificial light sources consisting of a fluorescent lamp or light-emitting diode (LED) in an aquaculture system (grown with water only, without nutrients). At the end of the observation period, the shoots grown under the fluorescent lamp treatment were the longest, followed by the LED treatment and natural lighttreatment. It was also observed that growth was faster for sprouts subjected to a non-sterilizing treatment than those subjected to a 70% ethanol treatment. As the seed sowing rate for planting trays increased, the yield of harvested barley sprouts increased; among light treatments, the natural light treatment resulted in the lowest yield, while the fluorescent light treatment resulted in the highest. The total phenol and total flavonoid contents of extracts of the barley sprouts were highest for the natural light treatment, but TEAC and FRAP were both highest for the fluorescent lamp treatment. The essential amino acid content ranged from 41.64 to 45.93 mg/g and was relatively higher for the natural light treatment than the other two t reatments, while the content of nonessential amino acids was highest for the LED treatment. The total amino acid content was highest for the LED treatment at 97.47 ± 6.30 mg/g, for which the content of non-essential amino acids (53.17%) was higher than that of essential amino acids (46.83%).

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    4 490 549
    Abstract

    Abstract : This work describe an efficient method for the shoot induction and plant regeneration of seedling-derived apical bud explants of Tilia mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim. The highest rate of shoot induction (82.2%) was obtained when apical bud explants from juvenile seedlings (5 months old) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). However, apical bud explants obtained from mature trees (12 years old) did not produce any shoots, even with BAP supplementation. Among the three cytokinins tested for shoot multiplication (BAP, zeatin, and kinetin), BAP was the most effective; the highest number of shoots per explant (2.1) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP. In contrast, the longest average shoot length (3.0 cm) was observed after growth on MS medium with 2.0 mg/L zeatin. No multiplication occurred when apical bud explants were cultured with kinetin-supplemented media. During rooting of in vitro-elongated shoots, the highest rooting rate (100%) was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 3.0 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). During the acclimatization process, plantlets that were rooted on the IBA (0.5 mg/L)- supplemented medium had the highest survival rate (100%) and maximum root length (18.5 cm). These findings suggest that a low concentration (0.5 mg/L) of IBA is appropriate for the rooting and acclimatization of T. mandshurica. Plants were successfully transferred to the greenhouse with a 100% survival rate. This protocol will be useful for the large-scale propagation of Tilia species.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    1 468 630

    Induction of somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos and young apical leaves in cork oak (Quercus suber L.)

    Zineb Nejjar El Ansari ·Brahim El Bouzdoudi ·Tomader Errabii ·Rabah Saidi ·Mohammed L’bachir El Kbiach

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(1): 44-53

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.1.44

    Abstract

    Abstract : The present work aims to study the induction of somatic embryogenesis in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) from immature zygotic embryos and young apical leaves obtained from 2-month-old seedlings through acorn germination on sterilized peat. The immature zygotic embryos were grown for 1 month on the mineral solution of MS in the presence of 4.52 μM 2,4-D and 30 g/L sucrose. They were then transferred to the same mineral solution with no added growth regulators. In the third subculture, yellow somatic embryos, characterized by two voluminous cotyledons, were differentiated from the radicle of the immature zygotic embryos. The induction of somatic embryogenesis in young leaves required a series of transfers on different culture media containing 30 g/L sucrose and 100 mg/L myo-inositol. Secondary or recurrent somatic embryogenesis occurred within the immature somatic embryo radicles after 1 month of culture on growth regulator-free medium containing WPM macronutrients, MS micronutrients, and vitamins.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    2 809 873

    Genome editing of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. glandulosa) protoplasts using Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoprotein

    Su Jin Park ·Young-Im Choi ·Hyun A Jang ·Sang-Gyu Kim·Hyunmo Choi ·Beum-Chang Kang ·Hyoshin Lee ·Eun-Kyung Bae

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(1): 34-43

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.1.034

    Abstract

    Abstract : Targeted genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a ground-breaking technology that is being widely used to produce plants with useful traits. However, for woody plants, only a few successful attempts have been reported. These successes have used Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, which has been reported to be very efficient at producing genetically modified trees. Nonetheless, there are unresolved problems with plasmid sequences that remain in the plant genome. In this study, we demonstrated a DNA-free genome editing technique in which purified CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are delivered directly to the protoplasts of a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). We designed three single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to target the stress-associated protein 1 gene (PagSAP1) in the hybrid poplar. Deep sequencing results showed that pre-assembled RNPs had a more efficient target mutagenesis insertion and deletion (indel) frequency than did non-assembled RNPs. Moreover, the RNP of sgRNA3 had a significantly higher editing efficacy than those of sgRNA1 and sgRNA2. Our results suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteinmediated transfection approach is useful for the production of transgene-free genome-edited tree plants.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    3 574 637

    Development of molecular markers for the differentiation of Angelica gigas Jiri line by using ARMS-PCR analysis

    Shin-Woo Lee ·Soo Jin Lee ·Eun-Hee Han ·Yong-Wook Shin ·Yun-Hee Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(1): 26-33

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.1.026

    Abstract

    Abstract : Angelica is a widely used medicinal and perennial plant. Information on the genetic diversity of Angelica populations is essential for their conservation and germ plasmic utilization. Although Angelica is an important medicinal plant species registered in South Korea, no molecular markers are currently available to distinguish it from other similar species from different countries. This developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions genomic sequences to identify distinct Korean-specific Angelica species via amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR curve analyses. We performed molecular authentication of different kinds of Korean-specific Angelica species such as A. gigas Nakai and A. gigas Jiri using DNA sequences in the ITS intergenic region. The SNP markers developed in this study are useful for rapidly identifying specific Angelica species from different countr.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    7 433 678
    Abstract

    Abstract : Solanum demissum is one of the wild Solanum species originating from Mexico. It has wildly been used for potato breeding due to its resistance to Phytophthora infestans. S. demissum has an EBN value of four, which is same as that of S. tuberosum, so that it is directly crossable for breeding purposes with the cultivated tetraploid potato (S. tuberosum). In this study, the chloroplast genome sequence of S. demissum obtained by next-generation sequencing technology was described and compared with those of seven other Solanum species to develop S. demissum-specific markers. Thetotal sequence length of the chloroplast genome is 155,558 bp, and its structural organization is similar to those of other Solanum species. Phylogenetic analysis with ten other Solanaceae species revealed that S. demissum is most closely grouped with S. hougasii and S. stoloniferum followed by S. berthaultii and S. tuberosum. Additional comparison of the chloroplast genome sequence with those of seven other Solanum species revealed two InDels specific to S. demissum. Based on these InDels, two PCR-based markers for discriminating S. demissum from other Solanum species were developed. The results obtained in this study will provide an opportunity to investigate more detailed evolutionary and breeding aspects in Solanum species.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2021

    2 286 592

    Correlation of saponarin content with biosynthesis-related gene expression in hulled and hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars

    HanGyeol Lee·Jae-Hyeok Park·A Mi Yoon·Young-Cheon Kim・Chul Soo Park・Ji Yeong Yang·So-Yeun Woo·Woo Duck Seo·Jeong Hwan Lee

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(1): 12-17

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.1.012

    Abstract

    Abstract : Saponarin found in young barley sprouts has a variety of beneficial biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, and hepatoprotective activities. Our previous work demonstrated that saponarin content was correlated with the expression levels of three biosynthetic pathway genes [chalcone synthase (HvCHS1), chalcone isomerase (HvCHI), and UDP-Glc:isovitexin 7-O-glucosyltransferase (HvOGT1)] in young barley seedlings under various abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the saponarin content and expression levels of three saponarin biosynthetic pathway genes in hulled and hulless domestic barley cultivars. In the early developmental stages, some hulled barley cultivars (Kunalbori1 and Heukdahyang) had much higher saponarin contents than did the hulless barley cultivars. An RNA expression analysis showed that in most barley cultivars, decreased saponarin content correlated with reduced expression of HvCHS1 and HvCHI, but not HvOGT1. Heat map analysis revealed both specific increases in HvCHS1 expression in certain hulled and hulless barley cultivars, as well as general changes that occurred during the different developmental stages of each barley cultivar. In summary, our results provide a molecular genetic basis for the metabolic engineering of barley plants to enhance their saponarin content.

  • ReviewMarch 31, 2021

    1 373 680

    Implications of access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources for researchers

    Jonghyun Lee ・Minho An ・Soohyo Lee ・Young-Hyo Chang

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(1): 1-11

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.1.001

    Abstract

    Abstract : In the era of the Nagoya Protocol, the way researchers have perceived genetic resources needs to change - genetic resources are no longer a common heritage of mankind. Many countries have recently amended their legal systems and are ready to adopt new legal procedures for access and benefit-sharing (ABS) of genetic resources to implement the Nagoya Protocol, claiming their sovereign rights over these resources for research use. Although both Korean government and academics have been striving to respond to the Nagoya Protocol, the understanding of ABS among researchers and the governmental guidelines for the use of genetic resources are not satisfactory yet. Researchers may perceive the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol as another burden for their research. However, it is evident that resource-rich countries are more likely to protect their genetic resources than other countries, and this tendency is expected to last long. Therefore, Korean researchers need to be prepared to minimize any damage that might be caused by ABS. This paper aims to raise awareness of ABS among Korean researchers by reviewing the key contents and overall structure of the Nagoya Protocol. It also identifies ABS procedures and presents specific measures for researchers to respond to the resulting changes in their research environments. Accordingly, this paper will serve as a guide for researchers to conduct research and development in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
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