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  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    3 543 856
    Abstract

    Abstract : Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Hangmaeg) sprouts are important microgreens that contain high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as minerals, vitamin and chlorophyll. Barley sprouts were grown for 9 days and growth was checked every 3 days. In this study, the cultivation efficiency according to the nutrient solution treatment was evaluated by analyzing the length of barley sprouts, fresh weight, chlorophyll, and the yield by growth period. In addition, we tried to increase the industrial applicability of germinated barley through analysis of inorganic component, total polyphenol and total flavonoid content of the extract, and functional substance analysis using HPLC. As a result, the growth rate of the nutrient solution treatment group was faster than that of the control group. When harvested on the 9th day of sowing, the nutrient solution treatment group showed a significant increase in yield compared to the control group. And the barley sprout extract of the nutrient solution treatment group had higher total flavonoid content and luteolin content. Also, the efficiency of water was higher than that of ethanol when extracting phenolics from barley sprouts. Therefore, this study suggests that nutrient input is effective for increasing polyphenol content and increasing production in barley sprout hydroponics.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    3 387 594

    Gibberellins enhance plant growth and ginsenoside content in Panax ginseng

    Chang Pyo Hong ・Gwi Yeong Jang ・Hojin Ryu

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(3): 186-192

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.3.186

    Abstract

    Abstract : The roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) have a long history of usage as a medicinal drug. Ginsenosides, a group of triterpenioid saponins in ginseng, have been reported to show important pharmacological effects. Many studies have attempted to identify the ginsenoside synthesis pathways of P. ginseng and to increase crop productivity. Recent studies have shown that exogenous gibberellin (GA) treatments promote storage root secondary growth by integration of the modulating cambium stem cell homeostasis with a secondary cell wall-related gene network. However, the dynamic regulation of ginsenoside synthesis related genes and their contents by external signaling cues has been rarely evaluated. In this study, we confirmed that GA treatment not only enhanced the secondary growth of P. ginseng storage roots, but also significantly enriched the terpenoid biosynthesis process in RNA-seq analysis. Consistently, we also found that the expression of most genes involved in the ginsenoside synthesis pathways, including those encoding methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) and mevalonate (MVA), and the saponin content in both leaves and roots was increased by exogenous GA application. These results can be used in future development of biotechnology for ginseng breeding and enhancement of saponin content.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    1 563 948

    Development of Vivorium, a new indoor horticultural ornamental plants via plant tissue culture techniques

    Min Hee Hwang ・Do Yeon Kim・In Sun Cho ・Mi Hyung Kim・Hyun Sook Kwon ・Jong Bo Kim・Su Jung Kim・Sun Hyung Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(3): 179-185

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.3.179

    Abstract

    Abstract : Indoor gardening includes wall greening, terrariums, and flower arrangements. Among these types of indoor gardens, the terrarium is easy to access for the general public, but in Korea, because of the focus on esthetics, the original purpose of creating terrariums, which was to grow plants sustainably in an enclosed space, has been lost. In addition, miniaturization of plants is required to grow plants in an enclosed space. Since the available plant species suitable for a terrarium are limited, only plants such as succulents, cacti, and moss have been used. In this study, Bronze (X Graptosedum) was used, and these problems were solved using the following three methods: placement and growth of virusfree plants in the terrarium; extending the diversity of plants with minimal size that can be planted in terrariums; and reducing the price of in vitro plants with minimal size by achieving large-scale production. In particular, tissue-cultured succulents were developed into a Vivorium by replacing the tissue culture container and renewing the composition of the plant. This paper suggests a new indoor horticultural field, Vivorium, that can improve the current limitations of terrariums and make them more accessible to the general public. The introduction and popularization of new indoor gardening fields with the increase in single-person households and indoor activities in the Pandemic era can also improve psychological stability among people and in the society.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    2 418 525
    Abstract

    Abstract : Basal callus formation and leaf abscission is a problem in clonal micropropagation. We have described an in vitro clonal propagation protocol of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb (shisham) ‘FRI-14’ in which AgNO3 played important role not only in mitigating problem of leaf abscission and basal callus, but also improved shoot induction and multiplication. Best induction and shoot multiplication was obtained on MS media with 1.5 mg/l 6-BAP and 10 mg/l AgNO3 and half-strength MS media with 0.5 mg/l 6-BAP, 2 mg/l AgNO3 and 50 mg/l Adenine sulphate whereas best ex vitro rooting was obtained with 200 mg/l IBA in pulse treatment.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    0 503 623

    Application of mass-spectrometry compatible photocleavable surfactant for next-generation proteomics using rice leaves

    Hye Won Shin ・Truong Van Nguyen ・Ju Young Jung ・Gi Hyun Lee ・Jeong Woo Jang ・Jinmi Yoon ・ Ravi Gupta ・Sun Tae Kim ・Cheol Woo Min

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(3): 165-172

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.3.165

    Abstract

    Abstract : The solubilization of isolated proteins into the adequate buffer containing of surfactants is primary step for proteomic analysis. Particularly, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is the most widely used surfactant, however, it is not compatible with mass spectrometry (MS). Therefore, it must be removed prior to MS analysis through rigorous washing, which eventually results in inevitable protein loss. Recently, photocleavable surfactant, 4-hexylphenylazosulfonate (Azo), was reported which can be easily degraded by UV irradiation and is compatible with MS during proteomic approach using animal tissues. In this study, we employed comparative label-free proteomic analysis for evaluating the solubilization efficacies of the Azo and SDS surfactants using rice leave proteins. This approach led to identification of 3,365 proteins of which 682 proteins were determined as significantly modulated. Further, according to the subcellular localization prediction in SDS and Azo, proteins localized in the chloroplast were the major organelle accounting for 64% of the total organelle in the SDS sample, while only 37.5% of organelle proteins solubilized in the Azo were predicted to be localized in chloroplast. Taken together, this study validates the efficient solubilization of total protein isolated from plant material for bottom-up proteomics. Azo surfactant is suitable as substitute of SDS and promising for bottom-up proteomics as it facilitates robust protein extraction, rapid washing step during enzymatic digestion, and MS analysis.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    2 864 598

    A novel technique for recombinant protein expression in duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) turions

    Salil Chanroj · Aompilin Jaiprasert · Nipatha Issaro

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(3): 156-164

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.3.156

    Abstract

    Abstract : Spirodela polyrhiza, from the Lenmaceae family, are small aquatic plants that offer an alternative plant-based system for the expression of recombinant proteins. However, no turion transformation protocol has been established in this species. In this study, we exploited a pB7YWG2 vector harboring the eYFP gene that encodes enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP), which has been extensively used as a reporter and marker to visualize recombinant protein localization in plants. We adopted Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated turion transformation via vacuum infiltration to deliver the eYFP gene to turions, special vegetative forms produced by duckweeds to endure harsh conditions. Transgenic turions regenerated several duckweed fronds that exhibited yellow fluorescent emissions under a fluorescence microscope. Western blotting verified the expression of the e YFP protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an efficient protocol for generating transgenic S. polyrhiza expressing e YFP via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated turion transformation. The ability of turions to withstand harsh conditions increases the portability and versatility of transgenic duckweeds, favoring their use in the further development of therapeutic compounds in plants.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2021

    4 373 627

    Functional characterization of gibberellin signaling-related genes in Panax ginseng

    Jinsoo Kim·Woo-Ri Shin ·Yang-Hoon Kim·Donghwan Shim ·Hojin Ryu

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(3): 148-155

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.3.148

    Abstract

    Abstract : Gibberellins (GAs) are essential phytohormones for plant growth that influence developmental processes and crop yields. Recent functional genomic analyses of model plants have yielded good characterizations of the canonical GA signaling pathways and related genes. Although Panax ginseng has long been considered to have economic and medicinal importance, functional genomic studies of the GA signaling pathways in this crucial perennial herb plant have been rarely conducted. Here, we identified and performed functional analysis of the GA signaling-related genes, including PgGID1s, PgSLY1s, and PgRGAs. We confirmed that the physiological role of GA signaling components in P. ginseng was evolutionarily conserved. In addition, the important functional domains and amino acid residues for protein interactions among active GA, GID1, SCFSLY1, and RGA were also functionally conserved. Prediction and comparison of crystallographic structural similarities between PgGID1s and AtGID1a supported their function as GA receptors. Moreover, the subcellular localization and GA dependent promotion of DELLA degradation in P. ginseng was similar to the canonical GA signaling pathways in other plants. Finally, we found that overexpression of PgRGA2 and PgSLY1-1 was sufficient to complement the GA-related phenotypes of atgid1a/c double- and rga quintuple-mutants, respectively. This critical information for these GA signaling genes has the potential to facilitate future genetic engineering and breeding of P. ginseng for increased crop yield and production of useful substances.

  • ReviewSeptember 30, 2021

    1 274 574
    Abstract

    Abstract : Since whole-genome duplication (WGD) of diploid Chrysanthemum nankingense and de novo assembly whole-genome of C. seticuspe have been obtained, they have afforded to perceive the diversity evolution and gene discovery in the improved investigation of chrysanthemum breeding. The robust tools of high-throughput identification and analysis of gene function and expression produce their vast importance in chrysanthemum genomics. However, the gigantic genome size and heterozygosity are also mentioned as the major obstacles preventing the chrysanthemum breeding practices and functional genomics analysis. Nonetheless, some of technological contemporaries provide scientific efficient and promising solutions to diminish the drawbacks and investigate the high proficient methods for generous phenotyping data obtaining and system progress in future perspectives. This review provides valuable strategies for a broad overview about the high-throughput identification, and molecular analysis of gene function and expression in chrysanthemum. We also contribute the efficient proposition about specific protocols for considering chrysanthemum genes. In further perspective, the proper high-throughput identification will continue to advance rapidly and advertise the next generation in chrysanthemum breeding.

  • ReviewSeptember 30, 2021

    0 346 624
    Abstract

    Abstract : We reviewed current research trends for discriminating between species of the Angelica genus, a group of important medicinal plants registered in South Korea, China, and Japan. Since the registered species for medicinal purposes differ by country, they are often adulterated as well as mixed in commercial markets. Several DNA technologies have been applied to distinguish between species. However, one of the restrictions is insufficient single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the target DNA fragments; in particular, among closely-related species. Recently, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR and highresolution melting (HRM) curve analysis techniques have been developed to solve such a problem. We applied both technologies, and found they were able to discriminate several lines of Angelica genus, including A. gigas Nakai, A. gigas Jiri, A. sinensis, A. acutiloba Kitag, and Levisticum officinale. Furthermore, although the ITS region differs only by one SNP between A. gigas Nakai and A. gigas Jiri, both HRM and ARMS-PCR techniques were powerful enough to discriminate between them. Since both A. gigas Nakai and A. gigas Jiri are native species to South Korea and are very closely related, they are difficult to discriminate by their morphological characteristics. For practical applications of these technologies, further research is necessary with various materials, such as dried or processed materials (jam, jelly, juice, medicinal decoctions, etc.) in commercial markets.

  • ReviewSeptember 30, 2021

    1 369 692

    Research status of transcription factors involved in controlling gene expression by nitrate signaling in higher plants

    Yu Jin Jung・Joung Soon Park ・Ji Yun Go ・Hyo Ju Lee ・Jin Young Kim・Ye Ji Lee ・Ki Hong Nam ・ Yong-Gu Cho ・Kwon Kyoo Kang

    J Plant Biotechnol 2021; 48(3): 124-130

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2021.48.3.124

    Abstract

    Abstract : Nitrate is an important nutrient and signaling molecule in plants that modulates the expression of many genes and regulates plant growth. In this study, we cover the research status of transcription factors related to the control of gene expression by nitrate signaling in higher plants. Nitrate reductase is a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, as it catalyzes the nitrate-to-nitrite reduction process in plants. A variety of factors, including nitrate, light, metabolites, phytohormones, low temperature, and drought, modulate the expression levels of nitrate reductase genes and nitrate reductase activity, which is consistent with the physiological role if. Recently, several transcription factors controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes have been identified in higher plants. NODULE-INCEPTION-Like Proteins (NLPs) are transcription factors responsible for the nitrate-inducible expression of nitrate reductase genes. Since NLPs also control the nitrate-inducible expression of genes encoding the nitrate transporter, nitrite transporter, and nitrite reductase, the expression levels of nitrate reduction pathway-associated genes are coordinately modulated by NLPs in response to nitrate. Understanding the function of nitrate in plants will be useful to create crops with low nitrogen use.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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Plant Biotechnology

pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
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