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  • ReviewDecember 22, 2023

    0 292 59
    Abstract

    Abstract : Since the implementation of the Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) Act in 2008, approximately 10 million tons of genetically modified corn, soybean, potato, canola, and other crops have been imported into South Korea. The import approval procedures have been completed for approximately 191 cases that include seven crops. Of these, approximately 90 cases, excluding crossbreeds of approved LMOs, were reviewed via consultation risk evaluation in four areas: human health, crop culture, natural ecology, and marine fishery environment. LMO developers in South Korea, who are major stakeholders in the import of LMO crops produced overseas, have raised concerns regarding procedural inefficiency in consultation reviews and the need of excessive reviews that are unsuitable for food-feed processing purposes. These procedures reflect the perspective of consultation agencies that deviate from the nature of risk assessment and demand specific supplementary data that do not reflect familiarity and substantial equilibrium. Based on frequent instances of unintentional environmental release of LMO crops imported into Korea, the ministries responsible for consultation insist on a review that considers the climate and natural environment of Korea. In addition, the ministries mandate that their reviews reflect the expertise of competent ministries and are based on risk assessment principles and methods in accordance with international guidelines. In this regard, considering that traits introduced into LMO crops involving familiar agricultural crops have been considered safe for more than two decades, we have suggested reasonable alternatives to several risk assessment items for agricultural LMOs. These alternatives can mitigate conflicts of interest among key stakeholders within the scope of the current LMO regulations.

  • Research ArticleDecember 20, 2023

    0 189 55
    Abstract

    Abstract : All studies on date palm somatic embryogenesis have focused on germination in the presence of light while neglecting germination in darkness, which mimics the germination process of zygotic embryos within seeds. To improve the date palm micropropagation protocol, we investigated the effects of light and darkness incubation on the germination of indirect date palm somatic embryos and their subsequent conversion into plantlets. Darkness incubation emerged as a pivotal factor in the germination of indirect date palm somatic embryos and their successful conversion into plantlets. Darkness incubation significantly decreased the time required for the conversion of indirect somatic embryos into plantlets, halving the duration from 24 weeks to only 12 weeks. The micropropagation protocol was modified, consolidating the previous two distinct stages of germination and elongation under light incubation into a single stage under darkness incubation. These findings modified the protocol and significantly reduced the overall duration of the date palm micropropagation protocol.

  • Research ArticleDecember 19, 2023

    0 198 49
    Abstract

    Abstract : Hyperhydricity is a physiological anomaly that significantly affects the growth and proliferation rate of crops cultivated by tissue culture techniques. To better understand the mechanisms that govern hyperhydricity incidence, we examined the effects of several media components, particularly cytokinin and gelling agents. These elements were found to be influential in both in vitro propagation and the development of hyperhydricity. Our study revealed that Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings had a greater manifestation of hyperhydricity symptoms when exposed to high cytokinin concentrations compared with the control. The presence of gelrite led to the manifestation of hyperhydric symptoms by elevated water build-up in the apoplast. The phenomenon of stomata closure was observed in the hyperhydric leaves, resulting in an increased ability to retain water and a decrease in the transpiration rates when compared to their respective control leaves. Additionally, histological examinations of the cross sections of hyperhydric leaves revealed an irregular cellular arrangement and large intercellular spaces. Furthermore, hyperhydric seedlings displayed impaired cuticular development in comparison to their normal seedlings.

  • Research ArticleDecember 13, 2023

    1 200 47

    Efficient plant regeneration through callus induction from the hypocotyl of Perilla frutescens L var. Dayu

    Ruyue Xu・Ji-Hi Son・Hong-Gyu Kang・Hyeon-Jin Sun・Hyo-Yeon Lee

    J Plant Biotechnol (2023) 50:248-254

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2023.50.031.248

    Abstract

    Abstract : This study was conducted to establish an efficient plant regeneration system in ‘Dayu’, a Korean variety of Perilla frutescens developed for seed oil production, in conjunction with the previously studied variety ‘Namcheon’. The healthiest callus was formed on the hypocotyl explants cultured on a medium containing 0.1 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BA, outperforming the leaf and cotyledon samples. In both dark and long-day conditions, Dayu consistently exhibited significantly higher shoot regeneration rates compared with Namcheon. The highest shoot regeneration rates in Dayu were observed from the hypocotyl explants cultured on 0.1 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BA media, with shoot regeneration rates of 84.4% and 86.7% under dark and long-day conditions, respectively. Various combinations of plant growth regulators were tested to establish the optimal shoot regeneration conditions for Dayu hypocotyl explants. The results demonstrated that the highest shoot regeneration rate (90%) was achieved when 0.5 mg/L of BA was added to the medium without NAA. Among the regenerated shoots, 70.5% were normal plants, while 19.3% were abnormal. The addition of NAA or an increase in its concentration led to a higher occurrence of abnormal plants. After the regenerated shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium, roots were observed within 10-15 days. By day 30, they had developed into complete plants. The results obtained from the regeneration experiments with the perilla variety Dayu can valuably inform molecular breeding reliant on transformation techniques such as genome-editing and genetic modification technology.

  • Research ArticleDecember 11, 2023

    2 360 41

    Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on enhancing growth, fruit quality, and functional substances in tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    Thanapat Suebrasri・Wasan Seemakram・Chanon Lapjit・Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk・Sophon Boonlue

    J Plant Biotechnol (2023) 50:239-247

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2023.50.030.239

    Abstract

    Abstract : This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing plant performance and bioactive compound concentrations in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). This factorial pot experiment included nine replications over 120 days of cultivation. Three AMF species (Rhizophagus prolifer, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, and Acaulospora mellea) were utilized as inoculum, while non-mycorrhizal controls with or without synthetic NPK fertilizer were compared. Interestingly, C. etunicatum KS-02 inoculations effectuated the best fruit growth and weight, which were statistically higher than those of the control without AMF. However, only fruit fresh weight was higher in plants inoculated with C. etunicatum KS-02 than those treated with the synthetic NPK fertilizer. In addition, C. etunicatum KS-02 inoculations induced a ≥ 11% increase in DDPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) activity, lycopene content, and carotenoid content compared to the control. This study is the first to report Claroideoglomus species’ effectiveness in promoting growth, fruit yield, and bioactive compound production in L. esculentum Mill. These findings substantiate the significant potential of C. etunicatum KS-02 for tomato cultivation without the adverse effects of excessive synthetic fertilizer use.

  • Research ArticleDecember 4, 2023

    0 199 50
    Abstract

    Abstract : Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role in epigenetic regulation, affecting the structure of chromatin and gene expression across different stages of plant development and in response to environmental stresses. Although the role of HDACs in Arabidopsis and rice has been focused on in extensive research, the role of the HDAC gene family in various medicinal plants remains unclear. In the genome of the balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus), we identified 10 putative P. grandiflorus HDAC (PlgHDAC) proteins, which were classified into the three families (RPD3/HDA1, SIR2, and HD2 HDAC families) based on their domain compositions. These HDACs were predicted to be localized in various cellular compartments, indicating that they have diverse functions. In addition, the tissuespecific expression profiles of PlgHDACs differed across different plant tissues, indicating that they are involved in various developmental processes. Furthermore, the expression levels of all PlgHDACs were upregulated in leaves after waterlogging treatment, implying their potential role in coping with waterlogging-induced stress. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive foundation for further research into the epigenetic regulation of PlgHDACs, and particularly, on their functions in response to environmental stresses such as waterlogging. Understanding the roles of these HDACs in the development and stress responses of balloon flower could have significant implications for improving crop yield and the quality of this important medicinal plant.

  • Research ArticleNovember 21, 2023

    1 286 49
    Abstract

    Abstract : Cold stress is one of the most vulnerable environmental stresses that affect plant growth and crop yields. With the recent advancements in genetic approaches using Arabidopsis and other model systems, genes involved in cold-stress response have been identified and the key cold signaling factors have been characterized. Exposure to low-temperature stress triggers the activation of a set of genes known as cold regulatory (COR) genes. This activation process plays a crucial role in enhancing the resistance of plants to cold and freezing stress. The inducer of the C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) expression 1-CBF module (ICE1-CBF module) is a key cold signaling pathway regulator that enhances the expression of downstream COR genes; however, this signaling module in Panax ginseng remains elusive. Here, we identified cold-signaling-related genes, PgCBF1, PgCBF3, and PgICE1 and conducted functional genomic analysis with a heterologous system. We confirmed that the over-expression of cold- PgCBF3 in the cbf1/2/3 triple Arabidopsis mutant compensated for the cold stress-induced deficiency of COR15A and salt-stress tolerance. In addition, nuclear-localized PgICE1 has evolutionarily conserved phosphorylation sites that are modulated by brassinsteroid insensitive 2 (PgBIN2) and sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 3 (PgSnRK3), with which it physically interacted in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Overall, our data reveal that the regulators identified in our study, PgICE1 and PgCBFs, are evolutionarily conserved in the P. ginseng genome and are functionally involved in cold and abiotic stress responses.

  • Research ArticleNovember 17, 2023

    0 267 53
    Abstract

    Abstract : Disinfecting water containing pathogenic microbes is crucial to the food safety of fresh green agricultural products. The UV-activated peracetic acid (UV/PAA) treatment process is an efficient advanced oxidation process (AOP) and a versatile approach to disinfecting waterborne pathogens. However, its effects on plant growth remain largely unknown. This study found that low-dose UV/PAA treatment induced moderate oxidative stress but enhanced the innate immunity of Arabidopsis against Pseudomonas syringae pv. (Pst) DC3000. When applied as water sources, 5- and 10-ppm UV/PAA treatments slightly reduced biomass and root elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings grown under hydroponic conditions. Meanwhile, treatments of the same doses enhanced defense against Pst DC3000 infection in leaves. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and callose increased in UV/PAA-treated Arabidopsis samples, and during the post-infection period, UV/PAA-treated seedlings maintained vegetative growth, whereas untreated seedlings showed severe growth retardation. Regarding molecular aspects, priming-related defense marker genes were rapidly and markedly upregulated in UV/PAA-treated Arabidopsis samples. Conclusively, UV/PAA treatment is an efficient AOP for disinfecting water and protecting plants against secondary pathogenic attacks.

  • Research ArticleNovember 13, 2023

    0 334 50

    Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of Lindera obtusiloba (Lauraceae), a dioecious tree in Korea

    Ho Bang Kim・Hye-Young Lee・Mi Sun Lee・Yi Lee・Youngtae Choi・Sung-Yeol Kim・Jaeyong Choi

    J Plant Biotechnol (2023) 50:207-214

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2023.50.026.207

    Abstract

    Abstract : Lindera obtusiloba (Lauraceae) is a dioecious tree that is widely distributed in the low-altitude montane forests of East Asia, including Korea. Despite its various pharmacological properties and ornamental value, the genetic diversity and population structure of this species in Korea have not been explored. In this study, we selected 6 nuclear and 6 chloroplast microsatellite markers with polymorphism or clean cross-amplification and used these markers to perform genetic diversity and population structure analyses of L. obtusiloba samples collected from 20 geographical regions. Using these 12 markers, we identified a total of 44 alleles, ranging from 1 to 8 per locus, and the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.11 and 0.44, respectively. The average polymorphism information content was 0.39. Genetic relationship and population structure analyses revealed that the natural L. obtusiloba population in Korea is composed of 2 clusters, possibly due to two different plastid genotypes. The same clustering patterns have also been observed in Lindera species in mainland China and Japan.

  • Research ArticleNovember 7, 2023

    0 306 58

    Physiological activity of extracts from softwood needles and cones

    Sodam Kang・Sang Hwi Im・Ju-Sung Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol (2023) 50:200-206

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2023.50.025.200

    Abstract

    Abstract : Although softwoods are widely distributed in Korea and used in various industries, studies are limited and comparative research on softwoods has been overlooked. Therefore, in this study, the physiological activity of four species of softwoods found in Korea was quantified. Needles and cones of Pinus densiflora, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cryptomeria japonica, and Abies koreana were collected, and material was extracted using 70% methanol. We quantified the following physiological traits: total phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity (DPPH, TEAC, FRAP), and inhibitory activity of the enzymes α-glucosidase, elastase, and tyrosinase. Total phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were high in Chamaecyparis obtusa and Cryptomeria japonica, and α-glucosidase inhibition activity was highest in the leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa. Elastase inhibitory activity was high in the leaves and cones of Pinus densiflora and the cones of Abies koreana, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity was highest in the leaves of Pinus densiflora. In Korea, softwoods are planted extensively on roadsides and as windbreaks, and they are highly competitive in supplying raw materials since they are pruned every year. Based on the results of this study, softwoods are considered suitable for use in healthcare products, diabetes products, wrinkles, and whitening cosmetics.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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Plant Biotechnology

pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
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