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  • ErratumDecember 31, 2018

    0 91 689

    Erratum: Effect of pH on the expression of RsMYB1 that regulates anthocyanin production in Petunia plants

    Deuk Bum Lee, Trinh Ngoc Ai, Aung Htay Naing, and Chang Kil Kim

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(4): 287-287

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.4.287

  • ErratumDecember 31, 2018

    0 106 603
  • ReviewDecember 31, 2018

    4 271 782

    Development of the conventional crop composition database for new genetically engineered crop safety assessment

    Eun-Ha Kim, Seong-Kon Lee, Soo-Yun Park, Sang-Gu Lee, and Seon-Woo Oh

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(4): 289-298

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.4.289

    Abstract

    Abstract : The Biosafety Division of the National Academy of Agricultural Science has developed a ‘Crop Composition DB’ that provides analytical data on commercialized crops. It can be used as a reference in the ‘Comparative Evaluation by Compositional Analysis’ for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. This database provides the composition of crops cultivated in Korea, and thus upgrades the data to check the extent of changes in the compositional content depending on the cultivated area, varieties and year. The database is a compilation of data on the antioxidant, nutrient and secondary metabolite compositions of rice and capsicum grown in two or more cultivation areas for a period of more than two years. Data analysis was conducted under the guidelines of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists or methods previously reported on papers. The data was provided as average, minimum and maximum values to assess whether the statistical differences between the GM crops and comparative non-GM crops fall within the biological differences or tolerances of the existing commercial crops. The Crop Composition DB is an open-access source and is easy to access based on the query selected by the user. Moreover, functional ingredients of colored crops, such as potatoes, sweet potatoes and cauliflowers, were provided so that food information can be used and utilized by general consumers. This paper introduces the feature and usage of ‘Crop Composition DB’, which is a valuable tool for characterizing the composition of conventional crops.

  • ReviewDecember 31, 2018

    2 684 1167

    Current status of new plant breeding technology and its efforts toward social acceptance

    Yu Jin Jung, Jong Mi Kim, Soo-Chul Park, Yong-Gu Cho, and Kwon Kyoo Kang

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(4): 299-305

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.4.299

    Abstract

    Abstract : Although new plant breeding technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, they are creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The rapid advancement in plant breeding by genome-editing requires the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO in terms of regulations. In this study recent developments in producing major crops using new plant breeding technologies were reviewed, and a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation were proposed. Moreover, the communication process were discussed in order to understand consumers’ current situation and problems of new plant breeding technology, establish social acceptance well, and understand consumers’ disputes such as GMO crops.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    6 262 975

    Identification of ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) signaling related genes in Panax ginseng

    Jeongeui Hong, Hogyum Kim, and Hojin Ryu

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(4): 306-314

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.4.306

    Abstract

    Abstract : Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) has long been cultivated as an important economic medicinal plant. Owing to the seasonal and long-term agricultural cultivation methods of Korean ginseng, they are always vulnerable to various environmental stress conditions. ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) is an essential plant hormone associated with seed development and diverse abiotic stress responses including drought, cold and salinity stress. By modulating ABA responses, plants can regulate their immune responses and growth patterns to increase their ability to tolerate stress. With recent advances in genome sequencing technology, we first reported the functional features of genes related to canonical ABA signaling pathway in P. ginseng genome. Based on the protein sequences and functional genomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana, the ABA related genes were successfully identified. Our functional genomic characterizations clearly showed that the ABA signaling related genes consisting the ABA receptor proteins (PgPYLs), kinase family (PgSnRKs) and transcription factors (PgABFs, PgABI3s and PgABI5s) were evolutionary conserved in the P. ginseng genome. We confirmed that overexpressing ABA related genes of P. ginseng completely restored the ABA responses and stress tolerance in ABA defective Arabidopsis mutants. Finally, tissue and age specific spatio-temporal expression patterns of the identified ABA- related genes in P. ginseng tissues were also classified using various available RNA sequencing data. This study provides ABA signal transduction related genes and their functional genomic information related to the growth and development of Korean ginseng. Additionally, the results of this study could be useful in the breeding or artificial selection of ginseng which is resistant to various stresses.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 225 911
    Abstract

    Abstract : Molecular and functional characterization of proteins and their levels is of great interest in understanding the mechanism of diverse cellular processes. In this study, we report on the convenient Escherichia coli-based protein expression system that allows recombinant of soluble proteins expression and cytosolic domain of membrane-localised kinases, followed by the detection of autophosphorylation activity in protein kinases. This approach is applied to regulatory proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana, including 14-3-3, calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, TERMINAL FLOWER 1(TFL1), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), receptor- like cytoplasmic kinase and cytoplasmic domain of leucine-rich repeat-receptor like kinase proteins. Our Western blot analysis which uses phospho-specific antibodies showed that five putative LRR-RLKs and two putative RLCKs have autophosphorylation activity in vitro on threonine and/or tyrosine residue(s), suggesting their potential role in signal transduction pathways. Our findings were also discussed in the broader context of recombinant expression and biochemical analysis of soluble and membrane-localised receptor kinases in microbial systems.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    0 278 1155

    Optimized phos-tag mobility shift assay for the detection of protein phosphorylation in planta

    Shah Hussain, Nhan Thi Nguyen, Xuan Canh Nguyen, Chae Oh Lim, and Woo Sik Chung

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(4): 322-327

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.4.322

    Abstract

    Abstract : Post-translational modification of proteins regulates signaling cascades in eukaryotic system, including plants. Among these modifications, phosphorylation plays an important role in modulating the functional properties of proteins. Plants perceive environmental cues that directly affect the phosphorylation status of many target proteins. To determine the effect of environmentally induced phosphorylation in plants, in vivo methods must be developed. Various in vitro methods are available but, unlike in animals, there is no optimized methodology for detecting protein phosphorylation in planta. Therefore, in this study, a robust, and easy to handle Phos-Tag Mobility Shift Assay (PTMSA) is developed for the in vivo detection of protein phosphorylation in plants by empirical optimization of methods previously developed for animals. Initially, the detection of the phosphorylation status of target proteins using protocols directly adapted from animals failed. Therefore, we optimized the steps in the protocol, from protein migration to the transfer of proteins to PVDF membrane. Supplementing the electrophoresis running buffer with 5 mM NaHSO3 solved most of the problems in protein migration and transfer. The optimization of a fast and robust protocol that efficiently detects the phosphorylation status of plant proteins was successful. This protocol will be a valuable tool for plant scientists interested in the study of protein phosphorylation.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    1 153 723

    The development of new soybean strain with ti and cgy1 recessive allele

    Sang Woo Choi, Jun Hyun Park, and Jong Il Chung

    J Plant Biotechnol 2018; 45(4): 328-332

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2018.45.4.328

    Abstract

    Abstract : Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed is an important dietary source of protein, oil, carbohydrate, isoflavone and other various nutrients for humans and animals. However, there are anti-nutritional factors in the raw mature soybeans. Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) protein and stachyose are the main anti-nutritional factors in soybean seed. The α′-subunit of β-conglycinin protein exhibit poor nutritional and food processing properties. The genetic removal of the KTI and α′-subunit proteins will improve the nutritional value of the soybean seed. The objective of this research was to develop a new soybean strain with KTI and α′-subunit protein free (titicgy1cgy1 genotype) and proper agronomic traits. A breeding population was developed from the cross of the Bl-1 and 15G1 parents. A total of 168 F2 seeds from the cross of the BL-1 and 15G1 parents were obtained. The segregation ratios of 9: 3: 3: 1 (104 Ti_Cgy1_: 30 Ti_cgy1cgy1: 21 cgy1cgy1Ti_: 13 titicgy1cgy1) between the Ti and Cgy1 genes in the F2 seeds were observed (χ2 = 5.12, P=0.5–0.10). Two F4 plant strains with proper agronomical traits and titicgy1cgy1 genotype (free of both KTI and α′-subunit protein) were selected and harvested. 2 strains (S1 and S2) had yellow seed coats and hilum. The plant height of the S1 strain was 65 centimeters. The 100-seed weight was 29.2 g. The plant height of the S2 strain was 66 centimeters and 100-seed weight was 26.2 g. The two strains selected in this research will be used to improve the new cultivar that will be free of the KTI and α′-subunit proteins.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    7 218 859
    Abstract

    Abstract : The mature zygotic embryos of the Hevea brasiliensis were cryopreserved through the use of the vitrification and encapsulation/dehydration techniques. In all the experiments, the zygotic embryos were pre-cultured for three days in the MS medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose before they were used for the cryopreservation technique. In the vitrification procedure, the effect of the plant vitrification solutions (PVS2 and PVS3) and exposure time were studied. The highest survival rate (88.87%) and regrowth (66.33%) were achieved when the precultured zygotic embryos were incubated in a loading solution for 20 minutes at 0°C. They were subsequently exposed to PVS2 for 120 minutes at 0°C and plunged directly into liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation by the encapsulation-dehydration method was successfully done by leaving the encapsulated zygotic embryos in a laminar flow for 4 hours prior to plunging into a LN. The survival rate and regrowth of the encapsulated zygotic embryos were 37.50% and 27.98%, respectively. The cryopreserved zygotic embryos were able to develop into whole plants.

  • Research ArticleDecember 31, 2018

    6 291 1004
    Abstract

    Abstract : In this study, the effect of elicitors such as yeast extract (YE), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) on the accumulation of eurycomanone in Eurycoma longifolia cell cultures were investigated. Suspension cells of E. longifolia was cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 1.25 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg/L kinetin at a shaking speed of 120 rpm. Elicitors were added in the culture at different concentrations and times to stimulate eurycomanone accumulation in the Eurycoma longifolia cells. Eurycomanone content was determined by HPLC with a C18 column, flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, run time of 17.5 min, and a detector wavelength of 254 nm. The stationary phase was silica gel and the mobile phase was acetonitrile: H2O. Non-elicited cells were used as the control. The study showed the effect of different elicitor concentrations, YE at 200 mg/L, MeJA at 20 µM and SA at 20 µM stimulated high production of eurycomanone. In which, treatment of 20 µM MeJA after 4 days of culture resulted in the highest accumulation of this compound (17.36 mg/g dry weight), approximately 10-fold higher than that of untreated cells (1.70 mg/g dry weight).

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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Plant Biotechnology

pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
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