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  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    8 428 1047
    Abstract

    Abstract : The main goal of this study was to determine the genetic diversity among 36 grape cultivars grown in Palestine by using ISSR-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprints. Among the tested primers, 17 produced reasonable amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. A total of 57 DNA fragments (loci) separated by electrophoresis on agarose gels were detected and they ranged in size, from 150 to 900 bp. Out of these fragments, 55 (88%) were polymorphic and 2 (3.5%) monomorphic. Our results also revealed an average of 3.1 loci per primer. A minimum of 1 and maximum of 10 DNA fragments were obtained (S-17, #820 and #841) and (S-31) primers, respectively. Therefore, the later primer (S-31) is considered to be the most powerful primer among the tested ones.The genetic distance matrix showed an average distance range of between 0.05 and 0.76. The maximum genetic distance value of 0.76 (24% similarity) was exhibited between the (Shami and Marawi.Hamadani.Adi) as well as (Bairuti and Marawi.Hamadani.Adi) genotypes. On the other hand, the lowest genetic distance of 0.05 (95% similarity) was exhibited between (Jandali.Tawel.Mofarad and Jandali. Kurawi.Mlzlz) along with (Shami.Aswad and Shami.mtartash. mlwn) genotypes. Furthermore, the UPGMA dendrogram generally clusters the grape cultivars into eight major clusters in addition to an isolated genotype. Based on these figures, the cultivars tested in this study could be characterized by large divergence at the DNA level. This is taking the assumption that our region has a very rich and varied clonal grape genetic structure.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    1 310 872

    Effect of plant growth regulators and carbon sources on proliferation and shoot formation of PLBs in Dendrobium candidum

    Jee-woo Jang, Chang Kil Kim, Trinh Ngoc Ai, Do-Jin Lee, Mi Young Chung

    J Plant Biotechnol 2019; 46(1): 9-16

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2019.46.1.009

    Abstract

    Abstract : Dendrobium candidum Wallich ex Lindley is a traditional Chinese medicine plant and has been widely used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. In this study, several different factors affecting micro propagation of protocorm- like bodies (PLBs) such as basal media, plant growth regulators, and carbon sources. The proliferation PLB derived from seeds was the best in H3P4 basal medium containing 0.1 mg · L-1 NAA and 0.1 mg · L-1 Kinetin. PLB growth was the best when 10 g · L-1 sucrose was added to the carbon atoms in the medium. The rate of shoot formation from the propagated PLB was the highest in 1/4 MS or H1P2 medium containing 10 g · L-1 sucrose, and the shoot length was longer than the others.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    9 555 1013

    Effect of nitrogen sources and 2, 4-D treatment on indirect regeneration of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) using leaf base explants

    Valiyaparambath Musfir Mehaboob, Kunnampalli Faizal, Palusamy Raja, Ganesan Thiagu, Abubakker Aslam, Appakan Shajahan

    J Plant Biotechnol 2019; 46(1): 17-21

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2019.46.1.017

    Abstract

    Abstract : Ginger is an important monocotyledonous plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The objective of this study was to investigate the regeneration potential of ginger using leaf base explants. Auxins such as 2, 4-D and NAA in combination with BA were used for initiation of callus. Different combinations of both ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) were also studied for efficient callus production. High frequency of white friable calli was observed on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BA. The highest shoot induction (92.33%), shootlets number (7.33± 0.33) and length (88.33±4.40) mm were achieved on MS media containing 0.5 mg/L BA. Regenerated shoots were transferred to in vitro rooting media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA. Afterwards, plantlets with well-developed root and shoot system were subjected to a twostep hardening process. 71% of plantlets survived after secondary hardening without any abnormal morphology.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    4 739 1314

    Establishment of tissue culture and acclimatization method for in vitro mass propagation of Echeveria laui and Echeveria elegans

    Youn Hee Kim, Gee Young Lee, Hye Hyeong Kim, Jae Hong Lee, Jae Hong Jung, Sang Deok Lee

    J Plant Biotechnol 2019; 46(1): 22-31

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2019.46.1.022

    Abstract

    Abstract : The objective of this study was to investigate the suitable parts for callus induction and optimal concentrations of growth regulators contained in the medium affecting shooting and rooting Echeveria laui and Echeveria elegans for in vitro mass production. To determine the suitable plant parts for callus induction, the leaves were divided into upper, medium and bottom parts and cultured on MS medium at different concentrations with 0 ∼ 2 mgL-1 NAA and 0 ∼ 4 mgL-1 BA. The upper and middle parts of leaves both showed 100% callus formation rate with NAA 1 mgL-1 and BA 1 mgL-1 treatment in E. laui. The middle parts of leaves showed 83.3% callus formation rate at NAA 2 mgL-1 and BA 4 mgL-1 treatment in E. elegans. The shoot induction rate from callus was highest at NAA 0.1 mgL-1 and BA 3 mgL-1 treatment in E. laui and NAA 0.3 mgL-1 in E. elegans. In addition, the number of shoots formation was 10.4 shoots high in NAA 1 mg L-1 and BA 1 mgL-1 treatment in E. laui and 12.0 shoots in most effective NAA 1 mgL-1 and BA 0.1 mg L-1 treatment in E. elegans. In the case of acclimatization of regenerated plant, growth characteristics did not show any significant difference (35 ∼ 55%) shading with respect to the different ratio of substrate mixture, and it was determined that would be appropriate considered plant height and appearance preference of E. laui and E. elegans. It was established that the optimization of culture condition was responsible for the mass propagation in vitro cultures of E. laui and E. elegans.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    1 338 816
    Abstract

    Abstract : Calla lilies (Zantedeschia spp.) are monocotyledonous ornamental plants which belongs to the Araceae family. After the release of elite calla cultivar, an efficient propagation system is needed for commercial use. Despite the use of conventional propagation methods such as splitting of tubers and rhizomes of calla, rapid and efficient propagation system should be developed. In order to achieve this goal, stem segments contained apical meristems derived from calla lily cultivar (cv. Gag-si) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinin and auxin. This was aimed at inducing embryogenic calluses, shoots and multiple shoots. As a result, about 25% of induction rates of yellow embryogenic calluses were observed with MS medium containing both 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA and 1.5 mg·L-1 BA as growth regulators.In the experiments involving the regeneration from embryogenic calluses through shoot formation, MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 IAA and 2.0 mg·L-1 BA showed the highest rates at approximately 85 ∼ 90% with regard to the formation of shoots in calla. Moreover, multiple shoots needed for rapid propagation were generated when explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 IAA and 2.0 mg·L-1 BA with 40% of formation rate. In this study, the combination of auxin and cytokinin showed positive effects on both the induction of embryogenic calluses, the formation of shoots as well as multiple shoots in calla. The regeneration system described here can contribute to the development of breeding programs of calla in the future.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    4 458 1182
    Abstract

    Abstract : The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different concentration of ethanol extraction on the total phenol and flavonoid contents and physiological activities. The total phenol content of the extracts ranged from 35.54 to 71.52 mg GAE/g. An increase in the ethanol concentration of the solvent led to an increase in the phenol content, with the highest content being found in the 80 and 99.5% ethanol extract. The same trend was observed for flavonoid content. DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and TEAC, FRAP and ORAC were measured by antioxidant assay. Radical scavenging activity of aqueous ethanol extracts was better than that of water and 99.5% ethanol extracts. TEAC and FRAP were highly dependent on ethanol concentration and ORAC showed high activity in 40 ∼ 80% ethanol extract. Antioxidant activity of Dolwoe leaves tea showed different results among the assay systems. In most experiments, the activities of water and 99.5% ethanol extracts was relatively low. α- Glucosidase inhibitory activity and microorganism inhibitory activity were highest in the 80% and 99.5% ethanol extracts. Therefore, it was considered that extraction with 80% ethanol was appropriate when considering the antioxidative and physiological activities of Dolwoe leaves tea. Based on these results, it can be used as a basic data for the development of food of Dolwoe leaves tea.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    4 384 1058
    Abstract

    Abstract : The Citrus grandis Osbeck is a special product in the Jeju island. The product has been as a remedy for liver damage and hang over. This study demonstrates how to investigate and compare the antioxidant, phenol content, tyrosinase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, antimicrobial, and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity with the C. grandis leaves extracted in different ethanol concentrations. From the yield, a 20% ethanol extract demonstrated the highest results among the other extracts. The distilled water extract showed the most abundant in a total phenol content and highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assay (used L-tyrosine as substrate), the 80% ethanol extract exhibited a higher value than other extracts. The 60% ethanol extract showed prominent activities in the tyrosinase inhibitory (used L-dopa as substrate), ADH and ALDH activity assay. In the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, 60% and 80% ethanol extracts inhibited the bacterial growth almost similarly. Moreover, the gram-positive bacteria was more restrained than the gram-negative bacteria. The results revealed that the distilled water and 80% ethanol extract showed a relatively higher antioxidant activity compared to other extracts. The 60 ∼ 80% ethanol extracts demonstrated potential tyrosinase, α-glucosidase inhibitory, antimicrobial, ADH and ALDH activities. Therefore, the C. grandis is suggested to be considered as a functional material for various proposes.

  • Research ArticleMarch 31, 2019

    0 320 832

    Ginsenoside composition of Panax ginseng flower extracts obtained using different high hydrostatic pressure extraction conditions

    Hyun Soo Kim, Gyu Ri Kim, Donghyun Kim, Cheng-Yi Zhang, Eun-Soo Lee, Nok Hyun Park, Junseong Park, Chang Seok Lee, Moon Sam Shin

    J Plant Biotechnol 2019; 46(1): 56-60

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2019.46.1.056

    Abstract

    Abstract : Ginsenosides are active constituents of ginseng (Panax ginseng) that have possible anti-aging, physiological and pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the ginseng root is generally used more often than the aerial parts for medicinal purposes, the flowers also contain numerous ginsenosides, including Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1. Therefore, an extract from the flowers of the P. ginseng could have the pharmacological efficacy of bioactive compounds including ginsenosides. The high hydrostatic pressure extraction (HHPE) is a method that is used for the efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials. In this study, we compared the yield of ginsenosides from ginseng flowers under different conditions of extraction pressure and time of HHPE. The results indicate that the total yield of the ginsenosides improved as the pressure increased from 0.1 to 80 MPa and treatment duration increased to 24 hours. In addition, the ginsenoside extracts from HHPE at 80 MPa, which possessed a higher total ginsenoside concentration, decreased the viability of the primary human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) significantly than the ginsenoside extracts from HHPE at 0.1 MPa. Collectively, we found that the method of HHPE that was performed for 24 hours at 80 MPa showed the highest yield of ginsenosides from the flowers of P. ginseng. In addition, our study provides a foundation for the efficient extraction of ginsenosides, which had a potent bioactivity, from flowers of P. ginseng through HHPE.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

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