Archives

Archives
Previous​ Next
  • ReviewSeptember 30, 2022

    0 347 524
    Abstract

    Abstract : There is a continuous rise in the commercialization of living modified (LM) organisms worldwide. While LM plants have not yet been cultivated in South Korea, research, development, import of products, and registration of related research facilities are progressing. LM plants should be tested in greenhouses and fields during development. Furthermore, environmental risk assessment and safety management should be performed before their release into the environment. Research on LM plant development is conducted in laboratories as well as confined greenhouses and fields. Safety management regulations are provided as combination standards for the LMO Act in each research district. The accidental release of the LM petunia in Japan was a significant incident related to LM plant research. It implies that normal plants within the distance of crossing should be regarded as LM plants. In the United States, LM creeping bentgrass was released into the environment, thus necessitating the establishment of stringent measures to prevent the scattering of LM plant seeds by wind or other mediums. In South Korea, LM Zoysia and LM cotton were released through rainwater. Therefore, safety measures that prevent LM seed mixing and plant vegetative propagules escaping into the environment via rainwater must be established. Preventing the dispersal of unapproved LM plants requires significant time, expenditure, and effort. Researchers should first identify the impact of LM plants on the ecosystem, and steps to avert their environmental release must be implemented.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    2 403 518
    Abstract

    Abstract : The precise homeostatic regulation of local auxin accumulation in xylem precursors of cambium stem cell tissues is one of the most important mechanisms for plant vascular patterning and radial secondary growth. Walls are thin (WAT1), a novel intracellular auxin transporter, contributes directly to the auxin accumulation maxima in xylem precursors. According to recent research, the auxin signaling activated pathway-related gene network was significantly enriched during the secondary growth of Panax ginseng storage roots. These imply that during P. ginseng root secondary growth, specific signaling mechanisms for local auxin maxima in the vascular cambial cells are probably triggered. This study identified four WAT1-like genes, PgWAT1-1/-2 and PgWAT2-1/-2, in the P. ginseng genome. Their expression levels were greatly increased in nitratetreated storage roots stimulated for secondary root growth. PgWAT1-1 and PgWAT2-1 were similar to WAT1 from Arabidopsis and tomato plants in terms of their subcellular localization at a tonoplast and predicted transmembrane topology. We discovered that overexpression of PgWAT1-1 and PgWAT2-1 was sufficient to compensate for the secondary growth defects observed in slwat1-copi loss of function tomato mutants. This critical information from the PgWAT1-1 and PgWAT2-1 genes can potentially be used in future P. ginseng genetic engineering and breeding for increased crop yield.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    6 601 509
    Abstract

    Abstract : The tetraploid Solanum acaule is a wild potato species from Bolivia widely used for potato breeding because of its diverse attractive traits, including resistance to frost, late blight, potato virus X, potato virus Y, potato leafroll virus, potato spindle tuber viroid, and cyst nematode. However, the introgression of useful traits into cultivated potatoes via crossing has been limited by differences in endosperm balance number between species. Somatic fusion could be used to overcome sexual reproduction barriers and the development of molecular markers is essential to select proper fusion products. The chloroplast genome of S. acaule was sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology and specific markers for S. acaule were developed by comparing the obtained sequence with those of seven other Solanum species. The total length of the chloroplast genome is 155,570 bp, and 158 genes were annotated. Structure and gene content were very similar to other Solanum species and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis with 12 other species belonging to the Solanaceae family revealed that S. acaule is very closely related to other Solanum species. Sequence alignment with the chloroplast genome of seven other Solanum species revealed four InDels and 79 SNPs specific to S. acaule. Based on these InDel and SNP regions, one SCAR marker and one CAPS marker were developed to discriminate S. acaule from other Solanum species. These results will aid in exploring evolutionary aspects of Solanum species and accelerating potato breeding using S. acaule.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    0 492 461

    A simple mid-term preservation method (SMPM) of plant callus under low temperature conditions

    Sung-Chul Park ・Su Hyun Park ・Soyoung Kim・Yu Jeong Jeong・Cha Young Kim・Jae Cheol Jeong

    J Plant Biotechnol 2022; 49(3): 187-192

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2022.49.3.187

    Abstract

    Abstract : The repeated monthly or weekly subculture of plant callus is labor intensive and increases the risk of somaclonal variation from the parental callus line. The most effective method for preserving plant callus is cryopreservation, which involves storage in liquid nitrogen. However, this method cannot be applied to the callus of different plant species in the same manner, so it is difficult to develop a standardized cryopreservation method. In addition, the survival rate of the frozen callus after thawing and the regeneration rate after survival are uncertain. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to extend the subculture interval of plant callus in an active state. In this study, active plant calli of various species without freezing was incubated at 15°C for 4 to 12 weeks without subculture. After 12 weeks, 8 lines of plant callus grew less than 2-fold when cultured at 25°C, but at least 2 times as much when cultured at 15°C. Moreover, total antioxidant activity did not differ significantly between plant callus recovered at 25°C after culturing at 15°C or at 25°C. These results show that the subculture interval can be extended at a temperature of 15°C without need for modified medium composition or additional processes. In addition, positive results in all calli of several plant species are expected to reduce labor as well as somaclonal variation by increasing the subculture.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    0 401 540

    A survey of viruses and viroids in astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) and the development of a one-step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of pathogens

    Boram Kwon ・Hong-Kyu Lee ・Hee-Ji Yang ・So-Yeon Kim・Da-Som Lee ・ChanHoon An ・Tae-Dong Kim・ Chung Youl Park ・Su-Heon Lee

    J Plant Biotechnol 2022; 49(3): 193-206

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2022.49.3.193

    Abstract

    Abstract : Astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is an important fruit crop in Korea; it possesses significant medicinal potential. However, knowledge regarding the pathogens affecting this crop, particularly, viruses and viroids, is limited. In the present study, reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (HTS) were used to investigate the viruses and viroids infecting astringent persimmons cultivated in Korea. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of the pathogens was developed by designing species-specific primers and selecting the primer pairs via combination and detection limit testing. Seven of the sixteen cultivars tested were found to be infection-free. The RT-PCR and HTS analyses identified two viruses and one viroid in the infected samples (n = 51/100 samples collected from 16 cultivars). The incidence of single infections (n = 39/51) was higher than that of mixed infections (n = 12/51); the infection rate of the Persimmon cryptic virus was the highest (n = 31/39). Comparison of the monoplex and mRT-PCR results using randomly selected samples confirmed the efficiency of mRT-PCR for the identification of pathogens. Collectively, the present study provides useful resources for developing disease-free seedlings; further, the developed mRT-PCR method can be extended to investigate pathogens in other woody plants.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    0 471 486

    Optimal conditions for adventitious root organogenesis from peony root explant callus cultures

    Young Jin Lee ・Myung Suk Choi ・Pil Son Choi

    J Plant Biotechnol 2022; 49(3): 207-212

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2022.49.3.207

    Abstract

    Abstract : The optimal culture conditions for root organogenesis from the callus of peonies (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) were investigated. Root explants with vascular bundles were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium combined with 0.5-4.0 mg/L auxins (indole acetic acid [IAA], naphthalene acetic acid [NAA], indolebutyric acid [IBA], and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]) and 0.0-2.0 mg/L cytokinins (kinetin, zeatin, and benzylaminopurine [BAP]) to induce callus formation. The callus was then cultured in MS medium combined with three concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L) of IAA, NAA, IBA, kinetin, zeatin, and BAP in the dark for 6 weeks. Based on the results, the effects of dark and light conditions on the callus cultured in MS medium with combinations of 0.1-1.0 mg/L IBA and zeatin for 6 weeks were studied. Callus formation was most effective (>+++) in the medium with a combination of 1.0 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L zeatin. A high number of long adventitious roots were observed in the mediums with 0.1 mg/L IBA (6.66 and 4.82 cm) and 0.5 mg/L zeatin (2.32 and 0.72 cm) among auxins and cytokinins, respectively. The highest number (14.06) of adventitious roots were formed from the callus cultured in light in the MS medium combined with 0.1 mg/L IBA and 0.5 mg/L zeatin. This same medium induced the formation of the longest adventitious root (5.45 cm) in the dark. Thus, optimization of in vitro culture conditions may be possible for the mass propagation of adventitious roots in peonies.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    0 471 504

    Rapid micropropagation of wild garlic (Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum) by the scooping method

    Mi Jin Jeong ・Seong Hyeon Yong ・Do Hyeon Kim・Kwan Been Park ・Hak Gon Kim・Pil Son Choi ・ Myung Suk Choi

    J Plant Biotechnol 2022; 49(3): 213-221

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2022.49.3.213

    Abstract

    Abstract : Wild garlic (Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum, AVVP) is a nontimber forest product used as an edible and medicinal vegetable. AVVP is usually propagated form offspring bulbs but it takes a long time to harvest. Using tissue culture technology could overcome this problem. This study investigated the optimal conditions for shoot multiplication, root growth, and plant growth by scooping AVVP bulbs. AVVP bulbs harvested from Ulleung Island, Korea, the main producer of AVVP, were surface-sterilized and used for in vitro propagation. Shoot multiplication was performed by the scooping method. More than five multiple shoots were induced from scooped tissue in Quoirin and Lepoivre (QL) medium containing plant growth regulators (PGRs); the maximum number of multiple shoots were induced from scooped tissue in QL medium containing 0.45 μM thidiazuron (TDZ) after 16 weeks of culture. Roots were induced directly at the base of the shoots in all treatments. In vitro rooting depended on the type of PGRs, and the best root-inducing treatment was QL medium containing 9.84 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Plants with in vitro roots were transferred to pots containing artificial soil and successfully acclimatized for 4 weeks. The acclimatized plants showed a survival rate of 80% after 20 weeks and gradually promoted growth depending on the acclimatization period. The results of this study will be of great help to AVVP dissemination through sustainable mass propagation.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    0 328 459
    Abstract

    Abstract : Apples are the most grown fruit crops in the fruit industry of Korea. However, virus or viroid infection such as apple mosaic virus (ApMV), apple stem grooving capillovirus (ASGV), apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) causes fruit yield reduction and poor fruit quality. Therefore, in this study, we examined to established an efficient virus-free system to eliminate the most infected ASGV virus in domestic apple orchard. We investigated that the shoot growth rate and the virus removal rate in ASGV infected potted apples that were treated with heat treatment in a growth chamber (constant temperature/humidity device) maintained at 36°C, 38°C and 40°C for 4 weeks. Here we found that the shoot growth rate was the highest in the heat treatment group (36°C) and the virus was removed in the middle and top of the shoot but not in the bottom. The virus was did not removed in the 38°C and 40°C heat treatment group in all section of shoots, and the heat treatment group (40°C) died after 4 weeks of heat treatment without growth of shoots. We performed in vivo shoot-tip grafting using the shoot-tip of potted apple heat-treated at 36 °C, and we also investigated the viability and virus removal rate, which showed 94% viability and 20% virus removal rate. Collectively, our results suggest that it would be possible to produce the virus-free apple plants through heat treatment and shoot-tip grafting.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    0 486 416

    Induction of in vitro root tubers in Holostemma annulare (Roxb.) K. Schum. for the production of bioactive metabolites

    Padmavathi Amma Somasekharan Nair Smitha Devi ・Achuthan Sudarsanan Hemanthakumar ・Thankappan Suvarna Preetha

    J Plant Biotechnol 2022; 49(3): 230-239

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2022.49.3.230

    Abstract

    Abstract : Holostemma annulare (Family Asclepiadaceae) is an invaluable vulnerable medicinal plant; the root tubers are used in Ayurveda medicine and by folk healers to treat various ailments. In this study, Schenk and Hildebrandt medium fortified with the cytokinins 6-benzyl adenine, kinetin, and auxins, including indole 3-butyric acid, indole 3-acetic acid, α-naphthaleneacetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, were checked for their efficiency on root tuber induction from different explants. Adventitious root tubers were more successfully induced from in vitro leaf segments and shoots when cultured in Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of α-naphthaleneacetic acid. In addition, preliminary phytochemical analysis of in vitro root tubers and identification of different secondary metabolites were conducted. Thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of the crude methanolic extracts of the in vitro root tuber identified the presence of lupeol, a bioactive triterpene. Adventitious root tuber induction offers a novel method for the in vitro production of bioactive metabolites that can be scaled up by bioreactors, thus ensuring the conservation and sustainable utilization of H. annulare. The study warrants further scale-up production and pharmacological investigation that can be extended for pharmaceutical needs.

  • Research ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    1 469 484

    Evaluation of waterlogging tolerance using chlorophyll fluorescence reaction in the seedlings of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) accessions

    Moo Geun Jee ・Young Ki Hong ・Sun Ick Kim・Yong Chan Park ・Ka Soon Lee ・Won Suk Jang ・ A Reum Kwon ・Bong Jae Seong ・Me-Sun Kim ・Yong-Gu Cho

    J Plant Biotechnol 2022; 49(3): 240-249

    https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2022.49.3.240

    Abstract

    Abstract : Measuring chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) is a useful tool for assessing a plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as drought, waterlogging and high temperature. Korean ginseng is highly sensitive to water stress in paddy fields. To evaluate the possibility of non-destructively diagnosing waterlogging stress using chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) imaging techniques, we screened 57 ginseng accessions for waterlogging tolerance. To evaluate waterlogging tolerance among the 2-year-old Korean ginseng accessions, we treated ginseng plants with water stress for 25 days. The physiological disorder rate was characterized through visual assessment (an assigned score of 0-5). The physiological disorder rates of Geumjin, Geumsun and GS00-58 were lower than that of other accessions. In contrast, lines GS97-62, GS97-69 and GS98-1-5 were deemed susceptible. Root traits, chlorophyll content and the reduction rates decreased in most ginseng accessions. Further, these metrics were significantly lower in susceptible genotypes compared to resistant ones. All CF parameters showed a positive or negative response to waterlogging stress, and this response continuously increased over the treatment time among the genotypes. The CF parameter Fv/Fm was used to screen the 57 accessions, and the results showed clear differences in Fv/Fm between the susceptible and resistant genotypes. Susceptible genotypes had an especially low Fv/Fm value of less than 0.8, reflecting damage to the reaction center of photosystem II. It is concluded that Fv/Fm can be used as a CF parameter index for screening waterlogging stress tolerance in ginseng genotypes.

JPB
Vol 51. 2024

Archives

Journal of

Plant Biotechnology

pISSN 1229-2818
eISSN 2384-1397
qr-code Download