Journal of

Plant Biotechnology

Common priming techniques and the agents utilized in each case

Priming Concept Priming technique
Osmopriming/osmotic priming halopriming Immersion of the seeds in an osmotic solution of water with a low potential, rather than pure water.
Priming agents: Polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, and inorganic salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium phosphate (K3PO4), and calcium chloride (CaCl2).
Solid matrix priming (SMP)/solid priming The seeds are mixed with a solid matrix (organic or inorganic) capable of adjusting the moisture content and controlling the uptake of water.
Priming agents: Vermiculite, peat moss, charcoal, sand, clay
Hormopriming The seeds are soaked in water with plant growth regulators and hormones, leading to an enhancement of seed germination.
Priming agents: Abscisic acid (ABA), auxins (AU), gibberellins (GAs), kinetin, ethylene, polyamines, and salicylic acid (SA).
Thermopriming Pre-sowing seeds at different temperatures is referred to as thermopriming.
Priming agent: Low temperatures or high temperatures.
Chemopriming The seeds are soaked in different chemical solutions.
Priming agents: Ascorbic acid, glutathione, tocopherol, melatonin, and proline, H2O2, sodium nitroprusside, urea, thiourea, mannose, chitosan, fungicides, etc.
Hydropriming/On-farm priming The seeds are soaked in sterilized distilled water and then re-dried using air to their original case.
Priming agent: Sterilized distilled water
Biopriming/biological seed treatment A combination of seed hydration by soaking; then, the seeds can be inoculated with beneficial microbes.
Priming agents: Beneficial microbes
J Plant Biotechnol 2022;49:107~117
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