Journal ofPlant Biotechnology
Common priming techniques and the agents utilized in each case
|Priming Concept||Priming technique|
|Osmopriming/osmotic priming halopriming||Immersion of the seeds in an osmotic solution of water with a low potential, rather than pure water.
Priming agents: Polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, and inorganic salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium phosphate (K3PO4), and calcium chloride (CaCl2).
|Solid matrix priming (SMP)/solid priming||The seeds are mixed with a solid matrix (organic or inorganic) capable of adjusting the moisture content and controlling the uptake of water.
Priming agents: Vermiculite, peat moss, charcoal, sand, clay
|Hormopriming||The seeds are soaked in water with plant growth regulators and hormones, leading to an enhancement of seed germination.
Priming agents: Abscisic acid (ABA), auxins (AU), gibberellins (GAs), kinetin, ethylene, polyamines, and salicylic acid (SA).
|Thermopriming||Pre-sowing seeds at different temperatures is referred to as thermopriming.
Priming agent: Low temperatures or high temperatures.
|Chemopriming||The seeds are soaked in different chemical solutions.
Priming agents: Ascorbic acid, glutathione, tocopherol, melatonin, and proline, H2O2, sodium nitroprusside, urea, thiourea, mannose, chitosan, fungicides, etc.
|Hydropriming/On-farm priming||The seeds are soaked in sterilized distilled water and then re-dried using air to their original case.
Priming agent: Sterilized distilled water
|Biopriming/biological seed treatment||A combination of seed hydration by soaking; then, the seeds can be inoculated with beneficial microbes.
Priming agents: Beneficial microbes